Compartments of the Neck Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Compartments of the Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Compartments of the Neck Deck (115):
1

The neck is divided up into two major triangles (anterior and posterior), which are separated by the

Sternocleidomastoid muscle

2

Each triangle contains skeletal elements, muscles, and neurovascular structures. In addition, the anterior triangles contain

Visceral structures (Esophagus and endocrine glands)

3

The bones of the neck include the

7 Cervical Vertebra and the hyoid bone

4

Have features common to most vertebra and are characterized by the presence of foramina within their transverse processes for transmittance of the vertebral artery and veins

C3-C6

5

Whatis unique about the C7 vertebra?

It has a long spinous process

6

Has superiorly placed facets for articulation with the base of the skull, no vertebral body, and no spinous process

C1 (Atlas)

7

Has the odontoid process (Dens) fused to its vertebral body

C2 (axis)

8

Located in the anterior part of theneck at the level of the C3 vertebra in the angle between the mandible and thyroid cartilage

Hyoid Bone

9

Does the hyoid bone articulate with any other bones?

No

10

Suspended by muscles that connect it to the skull, thyroid cartilage, sternum, and scapula

Hyoid Bone

11

The hyoid bone is attached to the thyroid cartilage via the

Thyrohyoid membrane

12

The hyoid bone plays a role in

Swallowing and phonation

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The cartilages of the neck include

-Form the skeleton of the larynx and airway

Thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, and tracheal

14

Part of thyroid cartilage that is palpable in the midline of the neck

Laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple)

15

What is attached to the hyoid bone:

1.) Superiorly
2.) Inferiorly

1.) Thyroid cartilage
2.) Cricoid cartilage

16

The thyroid cartilage and Cricooid cartilage are attached to the hyoid bone via the

Thyohyoid membrane and circohyoid membrane respectively

17

The superior border of the Thyroid cartilage corresponds to the

C4 vertebra

18

The cricoid cartilage is signet shaped with the band facing anteriorly. It is attached:

1.) Superiorly to the
2.) Inferiorly to the

1.) Thyroid cartilage
2.) First tracheal ring

19

The cricoid cartilage corresponds with the

C6 vertebra

20

What are the two most significant joints in the neck?

Atlantooccipital and Atlantoaxial joints

21

The articulation between the occipital condyles and the superior articular facets of the atlas

Atlantooccipital joint

22

The atlantooccipital joint is supported anteriorly by the

-superior continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament

Tectorial Membrane

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The atlantooccipital joint is supported posteriorly by the

Atlantooccipital membrane

24

Nodding of the head occurs at the

Atlantooccipital joint

25

The articulation between C1 and C2

Atlantoaxial joint

26

The atlantoaxial joint includes two zygopophyseal joints and the articulation between the

Dens of C2 and the anterior arch of C1

27

The articulation involving the dense is a pivot typed synovial joint also called the "no joint" because it is used to

Turn the head from side to side

28

Important ligaments of the atlantoaxial joint (no joint) include the

-Help resist dislocation of the dens , which could injur the spinal cord

Transverse ligament of the atlas and alar ligaments

29

Muscles of the neck can be organized into which three groups?

1.) Superficial
2.) Deep
3.) Hyoid

30

What are the three superficial neck muscles?

Platysma, Trapezius, and Sternocleidomastoid

31

The DEEP neck muscles can be organized into which three groups?

1.) Anterior
2.) Posterior
3.) Lateral

32

What are the two ANTERIOR muscles of the DEEP group?

1.) Longus capitus
2.) Longus Coli

33

What are the two POSTERIOR muscles of the DEEP group?

1.) Semiuspinalis
2.) Splenius etc

34

What are the muscles of the LATERAL group of the DEEP neck muscles?

1.) Anterior, middle, and posterior scalenese, and Levator Scapulae (LS)

35

The hydoid muscles can be organized into which two groups?

1.) Suprahyoid
2.) Infrahyoid

36

Used in swalloing and phonation and assist in tongue movements

Hyoid muscles

37

Elevate the hyoid bone and voice box, helping to shorten the pharynx and close off the larynx during early stages of swallowing

Suprahyoid muscles

38

During phonation, elevation of the hyoid and voice box by suprahyoid muscles assists in the production of

High notes

39

Depress the hyoid bone and voice box, assisting in the production of low notes during phonations

Infrahyoid muscles

40

Helps steady the hyoid bone and provides a stable platform for the tongue to move upon

Simultaneous contraction of the hyoid

41

What are the 5 suprahyoid muscles?

1.) Stylohyoid
2.) Anterior belly of digastric
3.) Posterior belly of digastric
4.) Mylohyoid
5.) Geniohyoid

42

What are the 4 infrahyoid muscles?

1.) Omohyoid
2.) Sternohyoid
3.) Sternothyroid
4.) Thyrohyoid

43

The cervical fascia consists of both superficial and deep layers. However, the more clinically relevant layer is the

Deep layer

44

Provides natural cleavage planes for surgery, facilitates movement of visceral structures, and can contain and facilitate the spread of infectious pus

Deep cervical Fascia

45

The deep Cervical Fascia is organized into which three layers?

Investing, prevertebral, and pretracheal

46

Surrounds the entire neck and encloses both the prevertebral and pretracheal layers

Investing layer

47

Surrounds the trachea and thyroid gland, and continues posteriorly as the buccupharyngeal fascia covering the pharynx and esophagus

Pretracheal layer

48

Extension of pretrachial layer of deep cervical fascia that covers the pharynx and esophagus

Buccopharyngeal fascia

49

Thus, the pretracheal fascia creates a

Visceral compartment

50

Surrounds the deep neck muscles and the vertebral column

Prevertebral fascia

51

The investing layer attaches

1.) Superiorly to the
2.) Inferiorly to the
3.) Posteriorly to the

1.) Skull
2.) Sternum, clavicle, and scapula
3.) Spinous processes

52

Splits to enclose the trapezius muscle

Investing layer

53

The investing layer forms the fascial roof of the

Posterior triangle

54

Splits to enclose the omohyoid, sternocleidomastoid, and infrahyoid muscles

Investing layer

55

Pierce the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia

External jugular vein and cervical nerve

56

Covers the trachea, thyroid gland, and thyroid and circoid cartilages

Prethracheal layer

57

The prevertebral layer attaches posteriorly to the spinous processes and lies superficial to the

Scalene muscles

58

Anteriorly, the prevertebral layer of the deep cervical fascia becomes continuous with the

Anterior longitudinal ligament

59

Forms the fascial floor of the posterior triangle

Prevertebral layer

60

The prevertebral layer is elongated laterally by the subclavian artery and parts of the brachial plexus, forming ultimately the

Axillary sheath

61

A neurovascular compartment formed in part by the prethracheal, preverteral, and investing layers of fascia

Carotid sheath

62

The carotid sheath contains the

Common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve, and lymph nodes

63

Lies BETWEEN the investing and prevertebral fascia in the posterior triangle

Accessory nerve

64

Lies within the retropharyngeal space

Sympathetic trunk

65

Lies between the prevertebral fascia and the buccopharyngeal fascia (posterior part of pretrachial)

Retropharyngeal space

66

Clinically important because it extends throughout the neck into the thorax and can facilitate the spread of infection pus

Retropharyngeal space

67

An esophageal abcess that begins in the neck could spread within the retropharyngeal space into the

Superior mediastinum

68

What are the two major cervical arteries?

Subclavian artery and External carotid artery

69

The subclavian arteries give rise to branches in the neck that supply the

Deep neck, shoulder, and brain

70

Branches of the right and left subclavian artery anastomose with eachother as well as branches of the

External carotid artery

71

The external carotid artery branches from the common carotid artery at the level of the

C4 vertebral body

72

What are the two important sensory structures located at the bifurcatiuon of the carotid artery?

Carotid body and carotid sinus

73

Lies within the crotch of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery

Carotid body

74

Contains chemoreceptors that monitor O2 and CO2 content of the blood

Carotid body

75

A dilation in the wall of the internal carotid artery at the bifurcation

Carotid sinus

76

Contains pressoreceptors that monitor blood pressure

Carotid Sinus

77

The carotid body and carotid sinus are innervated primarily by branches of the

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

-Some input from Vagus nerve

78

Branches of the right and left external carotids anastomose with eachother and with branches of the

Subclavian arteries

79

The two major veins in the head and neck

Internal and External jugular veins

80

Begins at the external opening of the jugular foramen where it drains venous blood

Internal jugular vein

81

The internal jugular vein courses through the neck within the carotid sheath where it receives tributaries from both

Superficial and deep veins

82

The internal jugular vein ends inferiorly by joining the subclavian vein to form the

Brachiocephalic vein

83

The external jugular vein begins at the union of the

Posterior auricular and retromandibular veins

84

The external jugular vein drains superficial structures of the

Face, neck, and scalp

85

The external jugular vein crosses the posterior cervical triangle within the superficial fascia and pierces the investing fascia to drain into the

Subclavian vein

86

The nerves found within the neck are of what three types?

1.) Rami of cervical spinal nerves
2.) Cranial nerves
5.) The sympathetic trunk

87

Innervate deep posterior neck muscles

Dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves

88

The ventral rami of cervical spinal nerves form which two plexuses?

Cervical plexus and Brachial plexus

89

The cervical plexus consists of ventral rami from

C1-C4

90

The cervical plexus form sensory nerves of the neck as well as the

Ansa cervicalis

91

Supplies motor innervation to the infrahyoid muscles

Ansa cervicalis

92

Also formed in the neck by C3, C4, and C5 ventral rami `

Phrenic Nerve

93

The phrenic nerve can be located lying anterior to the

Anterior scalene muscle

94

Lie in part within the neck

Cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

95

The cervical portion of the sympathetic trunk is located within the retropharyngeal space immediately posterior to the

Carotid sheath

96

The Sympathetic Trunk typically contains which three ganglia?

1.) Stellate Ganglia
2.) Middle CervicalGanglia
3.) Superior cervical ganglia

97

Formed by the fusion of the first thoracic ganglion and the inferior cervical ganglion

Stellate Ganglion

98

The stellate ganglion is connected to the

1.) T1 Ventral ramus (by grey and white ramus communicans)

2.) C7 nd C8 ventral rami (via grey ramus communicans only)

99

Connected to the C5 and C6 ventral rami via gray rami communicans

Middle Cervical Ganglion

100

Connected to C1- C4 ventral rami via gray rami communicans

Superior Cervical Ganglion

101

Superiorly comes off the superior cervical ganglion and forms a plexuson the internal carotid artery

Internal carotid nerve

102

ALL of the cell bodies of post ganglionic sympathetic neurons that supply the head are located in the

Superior cervical Ganglion

103

The primary route of lymphatic drainage is via deep cervical nodes that are located along the

Internal jugular Vein

104

These nodes drain into the jugular lymph trunks which drain into the

Right lymphatic duct and Thoracic duct

105

These ducts typically drain into the venous system at the union of the

Internal jugular and subclavian vein

106

What are the two endocrine glands located in the neck?

Thyroid and parathyroid glands

107

The thyroid and parathyroid glands are both richly supplied with blood via

Inferior and superior thyroid arteries

108

Connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland

Isthmus

109

What are the 5 cervical branches of the external carotid artery?

1.) Superior thyroid artery
2.) Ascending Pharyngeal artery
3.) Occipital Artery
4.) Lingual Artery
5.) Facial Artery

110

The superior thyroid artery branches into the

Superior Laryngeal Artery

111

The superior thyroid artery/superior laryngeal artery supply the

Thyroid gland and larynx

112

The facial artery supplies the

Face

113

The occipital artery supplies the

Posterior deep neck and scalp

114

The lingual artery supplies the

Oral cavity

115

The ascending pharyngeal artery supplies the

Pharynx, deep neck, and face

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