Pelvic Viscera Pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pelvic Viscera Pt. 1 Deck (82):
1

Lie within the bony pelvis between the pelvic floor and the peritoneum primarily occupying the subperitoneal space

Pelvic viscera

2

Generally consists of collecting vessels, urinary bladder, uterus, rectal ampulla (connected to excretory tubes), urethra, vagina, and the anorectal junction

Pelvic Viscera

3

The filling and voiding of the collecting vessels is facilitated by their location in the loose areolar tissue of the

Subperitoneal space

4

Flow through the excretory tubes is controlled by the

Pelvic and U-G Diaphragms

5

A pelvic viscera structure that stores urine

Bladder

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The bladder consists of a smooth muscle called the

Detrusor

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Where is the bladder located?

Posterior to the pubic bone in the retropubic space

8

What are the 4 parts of the bladder?

1.) Anterior facing apex
2.) Posterior base
3.) Superior surface
4.) Two inferolateral surfaces

9

The fundus and inferolateral surfaces converge to form the

Neck

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Extends from the neck of the bladder and conveys urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

Urethra

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A triangular region associated with the base and neck of the bladder

Trigone

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Where the bladder neck funnels into the urethra

The base of the trigone

13

Enters the bladder obliquely at the other two corners of the trigone

Ureters

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This design causes the ureteric openings to be closed, acting like a valve during

Bladder contraction

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Retains its shape regardless of whether the bladder is distended or empty

Trigone

16

The rest of the detrusor muscle has

Folds or Rugae

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Muscolomembranous tube about 10cm in length

Vagina

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Located in a superoposterior direction in the pelvis between the bladder (anteriorly) and the rectum (posteriorly)

Vagina

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Enter the anterior wall of the vagina superiorly

Uterus and cervix

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Recesses formed around the vaginal portion of the cervix

Vaginal fornices

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Can be exploited during a bimanual digital vaginal exam to palpate pelvic visceral structures

Vaginal fornices

22

The posterior bladder wall can be palpated via the

Anterior fornix

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The oviduct, ureters, and ovaries can be palpated via the

Lateral fornices

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Can be used to palpate the uterus and access the rectouterine pouch (Pouch of Douglas)

Posterior Fornix

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The posterior fornix is covered in part by

Visceral Peritoneum

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The vagina opens externally into the

Vestibule of the vagina

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Pear shaped, hollow muscular organ consisting of a fundus, body, and cervix

Uterus

28

The uterus receives the intrauterine openings of the uterine tubes between the

Fundus and Body

29

Enters the anterior wall of the vagina and is open with the uterus

Cervix

30

The anatomical position of the uterus within the vagina with respect to the angle at which its cervical portion enters is described as being

Anteverted

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The anatomical position of the uterus with respect to the angle between the cervix and the body of the uterus is described as being

Anteflexed

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This position reduces the likelihood of

Uterine prolapse

33

The uterus is further supported by the

Round ligament, transverse cervical ligament, and uterosacral ligaments

34

Provide a passageway for ovulated eggs to reach the uterus

Uterine tubes

35

The most distal portion of the uterine tubes, which opens into the peritoneal cavity

Infundibulum

36

Fertilization typically takes place in the

Ampulla of the uterine tubes

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In females, there is a communication between the external environment and the peritoneal cavity that begins with the opening of the vagina in the vestibule and ends with the opening of the uterine tubes in the

Peritoneal cavity

38

This provides a pathway for microbes like gonnorrhea and chlamydia to cause

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

39

These infection can cause scarring and a resultant blockage of the

Uterine tubes

40

What is done when the patency of the uterine tubes is in question?

Hysterosalpingography

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Located against the posterolateral wall of the pelvis

Female gonads

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What are the two ligaments of note that are associated with the female gonads?

1.) Proper ovarian ligament
2.) Suspensory ligament of the ovary

43

Attatches the ovary to the uterus and a remnant of a caudal genital ligament (gubernaculum testes in the male)

Proper ovarian ligament

44

A fold of peritoneum elevated by the ovarian artery and veins

Suspensory ligament of the ovary

45

Extends between the sigmoid colon (S3) and the beginning of the anal canal at the pelvic floor

Rectum

46

The inferior portion of the rectum becomes dilated, forming the

-Where feces are stored prior to defecation

Rectal ampulla

47

Palpable through the rectum anteriorly

Cervix

48

Extends off the anterior abdominal wall to cover the superior surface of the bladder

Parietal peritoneum

49

Reflects onto the anterior surface of the uterus and covers the posterior surface of the uterus and part of the posterior fornix of the vagina

Parietal peritoneum

50

The parietal peritoneum then reflects onto the anterior surface of the

Rectum

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These reflections of the parietal peritoneum generate which two pouches or spaces?

1.) Vesicouterine
2.) Rectouterine

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Located between the bladder and uterus

Vesicouterine pouch

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Located between the uterus and rectum

Rectouterine pouch

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Significant in that it is the inferior extend of the peritoneal cavity

Rectouterine pouch

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The peritoneum which drapes over the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries is called the

Broad ligament

56

The PROXIMAL 1/3 of the rectum is covered anteriorly and laterally by

Peritoneum

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The middle 1/3 ANTERIORLY and DISTAL 1/3 of the rectum is

Subperitoneal

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Located between the neck of the bladder and the urogenital hiatus in males

Prostate

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The prostate consists of smooth muscle, connective tissue, and glandular cells responsible for producing

Prostatic fluid

60

The prostate contains the prostatic urethra and receies the ejaculatory ducts from the

Ductus deferens and seminal vesicles

61

The prostate is divided clinically into which three zones?

1.) Transitional
2.) Central
3.) Peripheral

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Surrounds the prostatic urethra

Transitional prostate

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Surrounds the ejaculatory ducts of the prostate

Central prostate

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Peripheral to and encircling the central and transitional zones

Peripheral prostate

65

Enlargement of the prostate is common in men over

-Can be either benign or malignant

50

66

Primarily involves the transitional zone and is characterized by difficulty in urinating and an increased urination frequency

Benign prostatic Hyperplasia (BHP)

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Malignant tumors of the prostate preferentially involve the

Peripheral zones

68

An enlarged portion of the ductus deferens as it approaches the prostate

Ampulla of the ductus deferens

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Stores sperm prior to emission

Ampulla of the ductus deferens

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The ampulla of the ductus deferens forms the ejaculatory duct with the

Seminal vesicle

71

Lie immediately lateral to the ampulla of the ductus deferens

-Provide seminal fluid and help nourish sperm

Seminal Vesicle

72

The duct from the seminal vesicle unites with the duct from the ductus deferens to form the

Ejaculatory duct

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Opens into the prostatic urethra posteriorly

Ejaculatory duct

74

In males, the parietal peritoneum of the anterior abdominal wall reflects onto the

Superior surface of the bladder (posteriorly) and then onto anterior surface of rectum

75

This creates a single peritoneal pouch in the male called the

Rectovesical pouch

76

Pelvic branches are supplied primarily with arterial blood from branches of the

Internal iliac artery

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Venous return from the pelvic region are to branches of the

Internal iliac vein

78

Gives branches to the pelvic and perineal viscera as well as the lower limb

Internal iliac artery

79

The ovarian artery is a branch of the

Abdominal Aorta

80

The uterine artery has a clinically important relationship with the ureter. What is it?

Ureter crosses INFERIOR to the uterine artery

81

Lymphatic rainage of the pelvic viscera follows blood vessels primarily to the

Internal iliac lymph nodes

82

However, lymphatic drainage of the ovaries following the ovarian vessels would drain into the

Aortic lymph nodes

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