Lower Limb Nerve Injuries and Gait Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Lower Limb Nerve Injuries and Gait > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Limb Nerve Injuries and Gait Deck (57):
1

If gravity causes flexion at a particular joint, then the extensor muscles that cross that joint function in an

Isometric fashion to prevent gravitational movement

2

When analyzing muscle action in the lower limb, it is essential to be cognizant of whether the limb is

Weight bearing or not

3

When weight bearing, the distal end of the limb is

Fixed

4

When not weight bearing, the distal end of the limb is

Moveable

5

During quiet standing, without sway, at the HIP, gravity tends to cause

Extension

6

Gravity tends to cause extension at the hip during quiet standing. This is resisted by the

Illiofemoral ligament and ischiofemoral ligament

7

During quiet standing, at the KNEE, gravity tends to cause

Extension

8

The extension of the knee caused by gravity during quiet standing is resisted by the

Posterior joint capsule of the knee

9

During quiet standing, at the ANKLE, gravity tends to cause

Dorsiflexion

10

The dorsiflexion of the ankle caused by gravity during quiet standing is resisted by

Plantar flexors

11

In an average adult male in anatomical position, the center of gravity is located immediately anterior to

S2

12

Vector connecting the center of gravity to the center of the earth

-i.e. perpendicular to the ground

Line of gravity

13

In order for an object to maintain stability, the line of gravity must pass within the

Supporting base

14

Stability is increased by widening the

Supporting base

15

In order to maintain stability, in a jointed structure, the line of gravity must pass through the

Axis of rotation of each joint

16

At the hip, posterior displacement of the center of gravity increases

Extension torque

17

This extension torque is resisted by

Hip flexors

18

At the hip, anterior displacement of the center of gravity decreases

Extension torque

19

Further anterior displacement of the center of gravity converts gravity to

Flexion torque

20

Flexion torque at the hip is resisted by

Hip extensors (i.e. hamstrings)

21

At the knee, posterior displacement of the center of gravity decreases

Extension torque

22

Further posterior displacement of the center of gravity converts gravity at the knee to

Flexion torque at the knee

-resisted by knee extensors

23

At the knee, anterior displacement of the center of gravity increases

Extension torque

-resisted by hamstrings

24

At the ankle, what is the effect of posterior displacement of the center of gravity?

Dorsiflexion torque is decreased

25

At the ankle, what is the effect of anterior displacement of the center of gravity?

Increased dorsiflexion torque

26

What are the 5 stages of the gait cycle?

1.) Heel strike
2.) Foot flat
3.) Midstance
4.) Heel off
5.) Toe off

27

What are the effects of anterior sway at the
1.) Hip
2.) Knee
3.) Ankle

1.) Flexion
2.) Extension
3.) Dorsiflexion

28

What are the effects of posterior sway at the
1.) Hip
2.) Knee
3.) Ankle

1.) Extension
2.) Flexion
3.) Platarflexion

29

At heel strike, what is the tendency at the
1.) Hip
2.) Knee
3.) Ankle

1.) Flexion
2.) Flexion
3.) Plantarflexion

30

At heel strike, the following are controlled by?
1.) Flexion at hip
2.) Flexion at knee
3.) Plantarflexion at ankle

1.) Gluteus maximus and hamstrings
2.) Quadriceps femoris
3.) Dorsiflexors

31

At midstance, what is the tendency at the
1.) Hip
2.) Knee
3.) Ankle

1.) Adduction
2.) Flexion
3.) Dorsiflexion

32

At midstance, the following are controlled by?
1.) adduction at hip
2.) Flexion at knee
3.) Dorsiflexion at ankle

1.) Gluteus medius and minimus
2.) Quadriceps femoris
3.) Gastrocnemius and soleus

33

At heel off and toe off, there is a tendency for the hip to be

Extended

34

The extension of the hip at heel off and toe off is resisted by the

Hip flexors

35

The propulsive force during gait is provided by the

Plantarflexors

36

This plantarflexion pushes the ground

Downward and backward

37

The efficiency of gait is improved by positioning the limb so that at heel off and toe off, more of the vector pushes

The ground bckwards, and less pushing downwards

38

The gluteus maximus is innervated by the

Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, and S2)

39

What happens if the gluteus maximus is paralyzed and no compensatory mechanism is activated?

Patient will fall over at heel strike

40

To prevent this, the patient compensated by

Displacing mass of torso posteriorly at heel strike (gluteus maximus gait or lurch gait)

41

The gluteus medius-minimus complex is innervated by the

Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, and L6)

42

Active at the time of midstance to prevent gravitational adduction of the pelvis at the hip

Gluteus medius-minimus complex

43

If the gluteus medius-minimus complex is paralyzed, the patient will compensate by

Displacing mass of upper torso laterally to the supported side at the time of midstance

44

The gait resulting from gluteus medius-minimus paralysis is called

Tredelenburg gait

45

The quadriceps femoris are innervated by the

Femoral nerve (L2, L3, and L4)

46

Active throughout the stance phase to control gravitational flexion of the thigh at the knee

Quadriceps

47

If the quadriceps were paralyzed, the patients knee would buckle in the stance phase. to compensate for this, the patient goes through the stance phase with

The knee completely extended and locked ("quadriceps gait")

48

This converts gravity from a knee flexor into a

Knee extensor

49

The anterior tibial muscles are innervated by the

Deep fibular nerve (L4, L5, and S1)

50

Active during the swing phase to dorsiflex the foot and thus avoid having the toes hit the ground

Anterior tibial muscles

51

Become very active at heel strike in order to gradually lower the foot to the foot flat position

Anterior tibial muscles

52

If the anterior tibialis muscles are weak, we will see

"Foot slap" immediately after heel strike

53

If the anterior tibialis muscles are paralyzed, the patient will enter the stance phase with a

Toe strike instead of heel strike

54

To avoid having the toes hit the ground during the swing phase, the patient will

Increase flexion at the hip and knee, bringing foot higher above ground ("steppage gait)

55

The fibularis (peroneus) longus and brevis are everters of the ankle and are innervated by the

Superficial fibular nerve (L5, S1, and S2)

56

If these muscles are paralyzed in addition to the anterior tibialis muscles, then during the swing phase the foot will be

Inverted in addition to plantarflexed

57

To avoid entering the stance phase in the inverted position, the patient will

Swing the lower limb laterally during swing, thus bringing plantar surface of the foot in contact with the ground at end of swing

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