Development of the Urogenital system and Kidney 2 Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Development of the Urogenital system and Kidney 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development of the Urogenital system and Kidney 2 Deck (82):
1

A cranial remnant of the mesonephric duct in males

Appendix of epididymus

2

An enlargment on the wall of the urogenital sinus in males that is a caudal remnant of the paramesonephric duct

Seminal colliculus

3

An elevation on the wall of the prostatic urethra

Seminal Colliculus

4

Within the seminal colliculus, there is a homologue of the vagina known as the

Prostatic utricle

5

In females, remnants of the mesonephric tubules may persist near the ovary and remain in the mesovarium as blind ending tubules called the

Epoophoron

6

More caudally, some remnants of the mesonephric tubules may remain in the broad ligament called the

Paroophoron

7

A female homologue to the ductus deferens

-remnant of the mesonephric duct

Gartner's duct

8

External genital development begins to diverge during the

7th week

9

A proliferation of mesenchyme forms a genital tubercle, a pair of cloacal folds, and a pair of labiosacral folds in weeks

3-4

10

At the end of the sixth week, when the urorectal septum divides the cloacal membrane into a urogenital membrane and an anal membrane, the cloacal folds are divided into

Urethral folds and anal folds

11

What does the genital tubercle become in
1.) Males
2.) Females

1.) Penis
2.) Clitoris

12

What do the left and right urethral folds become in
1.) Males
2.) Females

1.) Fuse and become ventral surface of penis
2.) Don't fuse and become labia minora

13

In males, defects in the closure of the urethral folds may result in

Hypospadis

14

What happens to the right and left labioscrotal folds in
1.) Males
2.) Females

1.) Enlarge and fuse to become scrotum
2.) Remain separate and become labia majora

15

Grows back toward the urethra and then becomes canalized to become the distal end of the penile urethra

Glandular plate

16

The kidneys are in the retroperitoneal space and extend from approximately the

T12 to L3 levels

17

Which kidney is slightly lower, the right or the left?

Right

18

The kidneys are surrounded by a fairly thick layer of fat, the perirenal fat, which is surrounded by the

Renal Fascia

19

The renal fascia is, in turn, surrounded by additional fat, called the

-continuous with the remainder of the retroperitoneal fat

Pararenal fat

20

Each kidney is divided into an

Outer cortex and inner medulla

21

The posterior surface of the kidney is related to (and separated by fat from) the

Posterior abdominal wall

22

From medial to lateral, the lower half of the kidney is related to the

Psoas major, quadratus laborum, and transversus abdominus

23

The upper half of the kidney is related to the costal portion of the diaphragm and
1.) On the right underlies the
2.) On the left underlies the

1.) 12th rib
2.) 11th and 12 ribs

24

The anterior surface of the kidney is related to the

Parietal peritoneum

25

What other retroperitoneal organs are related to the right kidney?

Bare area of liver, hepatic flexure of colon, and duodenum

26

What other retroperitoneal organs are related to the left kidney?

Tail of the pancreas and splenic flexure of the colon

27

Anterior to the parietal peritoneum, some peritoneal organs are related to the kidney. What is related to the
1.) Right kidney
2.) Left kidney

1.) Ileum
2.) Stomach, spleen, and jejunum

28

The renal artery, renal vein, and renal pelvis enter the kidney on the medial side through the

Hilum

29

From anterior to posterior, what is the order of structures in the hilum

Vein, artery, pelvis

30

Narrows to become continuous with the ureter

Renal pelvis

31

As the renal artery approaches the kidney, it divides into segmental branches, each of which supplies a region of the kidney and is an

End artery

32

Segmental arteries give rise to interlobar arteries, which give rise to arcuate arteries, which give rise to interlobular arteries, which give rise to

Afferent arterioles that supply the glomeruli

33

When supernumerary renal arteries (end arteries) exist (approximately 20% of individuals), they may enter at the

Hilum or upper/lower pole of kidney

34

The renal arteries are direct branches of the aorta at approximately the

L2 vertebra

35

The longer renal artery, and typically passes posterior to the inferior vena cava

Right renal artery

36

The longer renal vein and typically passes anterior to the aorta and posterior to superior mesenteric artery

Left renal vein

37

The left adrenal vein and the left gonadal vein drain into the

Left renal vein

38

The right adrenal vein and right gonadal vein drain directly into the

Inferior vena cava

39

The left renal vein may get compressed between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta, thus compromising venous drainage from the left kidney, left adrenal gland and left gonad in

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

40

Abdominal pain after meals can indicate

Mesenteric artery syndrome

41

The compromised venous drainage from the left testis in the male may result in varicosities in the

Pampiniform plexus of left testicular vein

42

Entering each minor calyx is a renal papilla, which is the apex of a

Renal pyramid

43

Carry urine from the nephrons of a lobe of the kidney

-contained in renal pyramids

Collecting tubules

44

As the ureter leaves the kidney, it lies on the

Anterior surface of the psoas

45

The ureter crosses over the pelvic brim to enter the pelvis. This occurs immediately anterior to the

Bifurcation of the common iliac artery

46

The ureter crosses the most proximal portion of the

External iliac artery

47

The ureter continues down the posterolateral pelvic wall and then crosses anteriorly along the pelvic floor to reach the

Bladder

48

Contracts and compresses the ureter to prevent retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the ureter

Detrusor muscle

49

The ureter has three distinct narrowings which are prone to impaction of ureteral stones. Where are they?

1.) Ureteropelvic junction
2.) Where it crosses pelvic brim at common illiac artery bifurcation
3.) Ureterovesical junction

50

Where the renal pelvis transitions to the ureter

Ureteropelvic junction

51

Where the ureter passes through the bladder wall

Ureterovesical junction

52

The smallest of the ureter narrowings and the most common location for a ureteral stone to get impacted

Ureterovesicle junction

53

The obstruction of the ureter by a stone
results in strong painful contraction of the ureteric muscle, called

Ureteric colic

54

Such obstruction, if not resolved, can lead to back pressure to the kidney and

Hydronephrosis

55

The superior portion of the ureter receives its blood supply from branches of the

Renal artery

56

Receives it's blood supply from branches of the gonadal artery, the abdominal aorta, the common iliac artery and branches of the internal iliac artery

More inferior parts of ureter

57

What is the only portion of the ureter that is transplanted during a kidney transplant?

Upper portion

58

The ureter receives parasympathetic innervation from the

Vagus nerves and pelvic splanchnic nerves

59

The ureter receives sympathetic innervation from

T10-T12 and L1-L2

60

Sensory innervation of the ureter parallels the sympathetic innervation and thus enters the spinal cord at segmental levels

T10 - L2

61

The higher segmental levels innervate the

More superior portions of ureter

62

An extraperitoneal organ in the pelvis, located anteroinferior to the parietal
peritoneum

Urinary bladder

63

The empty bladder in the adult is entirely in the true pelvis and largely behind the

Pubis

64

The full bladder may reach as high as the

Umbilicus

65

Most of the wall of the bladder contains smooth muscle known as the

Detrusor muscle

66

These muscle fibers are arranged such that when they contract, they compress the bladder lumen, thus

Expelling Urine

67

The smooth muscle in the bladder wall in the region of the neck of the bladder (near the emergence of the urethra) is called the

Internal urethral sphincter

68

The smooth muscle fibers in the internal urethral sphincter are arranged in a

Circular pattern

69

Contracts to constrict the opening of the urethra and retain urine in the bladder

Muscles of internal urethral sphincter

70

What type of innervation do the following receive?
1.) Detrusor muscle
2.) Internal urethral sphincter

1.) Parasympathetic
2.) Sympathetic

71

An injury to the spinal cord that prevents communication between the brain and the sacral nerves may result in

Voluntary bladder control loss

72

Enter the bladder at the right and left posteroinferior portions of the wall

Ureters

73

Exits the bladder at the inferior portion of the wall

Urethra

74

The triangular region of the bladder wall, bounded by the two ureters and the urethra is the

Trigone

75

All of the bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus, except the trigone which is from the

Incorporation of mesonephric ducts into urogenital sinus

76

Regardless of whether the bladder is empty or full, the internal surface of the bladder in the region of the trigone is

Smooth

77

When the bladder is empty, the walls are

Ridged

78

This difference in appearance of the internal surface of the bladder when empty, allows for the identification of the

Ureters at the apices of the trigone

79

The bladder receives its blood supply from branches of the

Internal iliac arteries

80

The superior vesical arteries (branches of the umbilical arteries) supply the

Upper portion of the bladder

81

The lower portion of the bladder receives supply
1.) In males from
2.) In females from

1.) Inferior vesical arteries
2.) Vaginal arteries

82

In the bladder,
1.) Venous drainage is to?
2.) Lymphatic drainage is to?

1.) Internal iliac vein
2.) External and internal iliac nodes

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