ANTH 1000 - Ch. 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 10 Deck (15):
1

Neolithic

The New Stone Age; prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated plants and/or animals

2

Mesolithic

The Middle Stone Age; period between the end of the Paleolithic and the start of the Neolithic; referred to as Archaic cultures in the Americas

3

Archaic cultures

Term used to refer to Mesolithic cultures in the Americas

4

microlith

a small blade of flint or similar stone, which were hafted together in handles or shafts made of wood, bone, or antler to make tools; widespread in the Mesolithic

5

Natufian culture

A Mesolithic culture living in the lands that are now Israel, Lebanon, and western Syria between about 10,200 and 12,500 years ago.

6

Neolithic revolution

the profound cultural change beginning about 10,000 years ago and associated with the early domestication of plants and animals and settlement in permanent villages. Sometimes referred to as the Neolithic transition

7

innovation

any new idea, method, or device that gains widespread acceptance in society

8

primary innovation

the creation, invention, or discovery by chance of a completely new idea, method, or device

9

secondary innovation

the deliberate application or modification of an existing idea, method, or device

10

domestication

an evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of the population are unable to survive and/or reproduce without human assistance

11

vegeculture

the cultivation of domesticated root crops, such as yams and taro

12

horticulture

cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoe

13

Mesoamerica

the region encompassing central and southern Mexico and northern Central America

14

agriculture

the cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production. Invovles using technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals

15

pastoralism

Bredding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing and browsing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses, llamas, or camels