ANTH 1000 - Ch. 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 5 Deck (25):
1

prehistory

a conventional term used to refer to the period of time before the appearance of written records; does not deny the existence of history, merely of WRITTEN history

2

artifact

any object fashioned or altered by humans

3

material culture

the durable aspects of culture, such as tools, structures, and art

4

ecofact

the natural remains of plants and animals found in the archaeological record

5

feature

a non-portable element such as a hearth or an architectural element such as a wall that is preserved in the archaeological record

6

fossil

any mineralized trace or impression of an organism that has been preserved in the earth's crust from past geologic time

7

taphonomy

the study of how bones and other materials come to be preserved in the earth as fossils

8

soil mark

a stain that shows up on the surface of recently plowed fields that reveals an archaeological site

9

middens

a refuse or garbage disposal area in an archaelogical site

10

grid system

a system for recording data in three dimensions for an archaeological excavation

11

datum point

the starting point, or reference, for a grid system

12

flotation

an archaeological technique employed to recover very tiny objects by immersion of soil samples in water to separate heavy from light particles

13

stratified

layered; term used to describe archaeological sites where the remains lie in layers, one upon another

14

coprolites

preserved fecal material providing evidence of the diet and health of past organisms

15

endocast

a cast of the inside of a skull; used to help determine the size and shape of the brain

16

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

a technique for amplifying or creating multiple copies of fragments of DNA so that it can be studied in the laboratory

17

relative dating

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, designating an event, object, or fossil as being older or younger than another

18

absolute or chronometric dating

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, dating recovered material based on solar years, centuries, or other units of absolute time

19

stratigraphy

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, the most reliable method of relative dating by means of strata

20

fluorine dating

in archaeology or paleoanthropology, a technique for relative dating based on the fact that the amount of fluorine in bones is proportional to their age

21

seriation

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique for relative dating based on putting groups of objects into a sequence in relation to one another

22

palynology

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique of relative dating based on changes in fossil pollen over time

23

radiocarbon dating

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique of chronometric dating based on measuring the amount of radioactive carbon (14-C) left in organic materials found in archaeological sites

24

dendrochronology

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique of chronometric dating based on the number of rings of growth found in a tree trunk

25

potassium-argon dating

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique of chronometric dating that measures the ratio of radioactive potassium to argon in volcanic debris associated with human remains