ANTH 1000 - Ch. 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 7 Deck (12):
1

bipedalism

the mode of locomotion in which an organism walks upright on its two hind legs, characteristics of humans and their ancestors; also called bipedality

2

abduction

movement aware from the midline of the body or from the center of the hand or foot

3

adduction

movement toward the midline of the body or to the center of the hand or foot

4

Ardipithecus ramidus

one of the earliest bipeds that lived in forested portions of eastern Africa about 4.4 million years ago

5

Australopithecus

the genus including several species of early bipeds from East, South, and Central Africa living between about 1.1 and 4.3 million years ago, one of whom was directly ancestral to humans

6

savannah

semi-arid plains environment as in eastern Africa

7

diastema

a space between the canines and other teeth allowing the large projecting canines to fit within the jaw

8

Kenyanthropus platyops

a proposed genus and species of biped contemporary with early australopithecines; may not be a separated genus

9

gracile australopithecines

members of the genus Australopithecus possessing a more lightly built chewing apparatus; likely had a diet that included more meat than that of the robust australopithecines; best represented by the South African species A. africanus

10

robust australopithecines

several species within the genus Australopithecus, who lived from 2.5 to 1.1 million years ago in eastern and southern Afric; known for the rugged nature of their chewing apparatus (large back teeth, large chewing muscles, and a bony ridge on their skull tops for the insertions of these large muscles)

11

sagittal crest

a crest running from front to back on the top of the skull along the midline to provide a surface of bone for the attachment of the large temporal muscles for chewing

12

law of competitive exclusion

when two closely related species compete for the same niche, one will out-compete the other, bringing about the latter's extinction