ANTH 1000 - Ch. 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 21 Deck (16):
1

kinship

a network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations

2

descent group

any kin-ordered social group with a membership in the direct line of descent from a real (historical) or fictional common ancestor

3

unilineal descent

descent that establishes group membership exclusively through either the male or female line; also knowns as unlateral descent

4

matrilineal descent

descent traced excluseively through the female line to establish group membership

5

patrilineal descent

descent traced exclusively through the male line to establish group membership; also known as agnatic or male descent

6

lineage

a unilineal kinship group descended from a common ancestor or founder who lived four to six generations ago, and in which relationships among members can be exactly stated in genealogical terms

7

clan

an extended unilineal kinship group, often consisting of several lineages, whose members claim common descent from a remote ancestor, usually legendary or mythological

8

fission

the splitting of a descent group into two or more new descent groups

9

totemism

the belief that people are related to particular animals, plants, or natural objects by virtue of descent from common ancestral spirits

10

phratry

a unilineal descent group composed of at least two clans that supposedly share a common ancestry, whether or not they really do

11

moiety

each group that results from a division of a society into two halves on the basis of descent

12

kindred

an individual's close blood relatives on the maternal and paternal sides of his or her family

13

EGO

the central person from whom the degree of each relationship is traced

14

Eskimo system

Kinship reckoning in which the nuclear family is emphasized by specifically identifying the mother, father, brother, and sister, while lumping together all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, and cousin; also known as lineal system

15

Hawaiian system

kinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same term

16

Iroquois system

kinship reckoning in which a father and father's brother are referred to by a single term, as are a mother and mother's sister, but a father's sister and mother's brother are given separate terms. Parallel cousins are classified with brothers and sisters, while cross cousins are classified separately but not equated with relatives of some other generation