ANTH 1000 - Ch. 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 14 Deck (24):
1

culture

a society's shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior

2

enculturation

the process by which a society's culture is passed on from one generations to the next and individuals become members of their society

3

society

an organized group or groups of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survivial and well-being

4

gender

the cultural elaborations and means assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes

5

subculture

a distinctive set of ideas, values, and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society aperates, while still sharing common standards with that larger society

6

ethnic group

people who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group basedon cultural geatures such as common origin, language, customes and traditional beliefs

7

ethnicity

this term, rooted in the Greek word ETHNIKOS ("nation") and related ETHNOS ("custom"), is the expression for the set of cultural ideas held by an ethnic group

8

pluralistic society

a society in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but maintain their cultural differences

9

symbol

a sign, sound, emblem, or other thing that is arbitrarily linked to something else and represents it in a meaningful way

10

social structure

the rule-governed relationships - with all their rights and obligations - that hold members of a society together. This includes households, families, associations, and power relations, including politics

11

infrastructure

the economic foundation of a society including its subsistence practices adn the tools and other material equipment used to make a living

12

superstructure

a society's shared sense of identity and worldview. The collective body of ideas, beliefs, and values by which members of a society make sense of the world - its shape, challenges and opportunities - and understand their place in it. This includes religion and national ideology

13

cultural adaptation

a complex of ideas, activities and technologies that enables people to survive and even thrive in their environment

14

cultural relativism

the idea that one must suspend judgement of other people's practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms

15

...if you alter one aspect of culture, you can drastically affect and possibly even endanger the functioning of the whole

Culture is an integrated and interrelated whole, which means that _______________.

16

genes

Which of the following is NOT a common aspect of culture

17

True

T or F: No known human societies exist, or have existed, that do not exhibit culture.

18

...are able to interpret and predict each other's actions

People share the same culture if they ____________.

19

enculturation

The process in which culture is transmitted from one generation to the next is called _____________.

20

ethnocentrism

The belief that one's own way of life is superior to others is __________.

21

True

T or F: Cultures are changing more rapidly toady than they did in the past.

22

integrated

Among the Kapauku Papuans of New Guinea, the fact that an attempt to eliminate warfare (which would create a more balanced sex ration) would affect the practice of polygyny, which would affect the economy (since women raise pigs, and the more wives a man has the more pigs he can keep), shows that culture is __________.

23

(NOT biology)

Humans' major mode of adaptation, which enables them to live effectively in diverse environments, is __________.

24

(NOT ... are independent of biological differences)

The cultural definitions of what it means to be a male or female today __________.