ANTH 1000 - Ch. 24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 24 Deck (21):
1

worldview

the collective body of ideas that members of a culture generally share concerning the ultimate shape and substance of their reality

2

religion

an organized system of ideas about the spiritual sphere or the supernatural, along with associated ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and/or influence aspects of the universe otherwise beyond their control

3

spirituality

concern with the sacred, as distinguished from material matters. In contrast to religion, it is often individual rather than collective and does not require a distinctive format or traditional organization

4

polytheism

belief in several gods and/or goddesses (as contrasted with monotheism - belief in one god or goddess)

5

pantheon

the several gods and goddesses of a people

6

animism

a belief that nature is animated (enlived or energized) by distinct personalized spirit beings separable from bodies

7

animatism

a belief that nature is enlivened or energized by an impersonal spiritual power or supernatural potency.

8

priest or priestess

a full-time religious specialist formally recognized for his or her role i nguiding the religious practices of others and for contacting and influencing supernatural powers

9

shaman

a person who enters an altered state of consciousness - at will - to contact and utilize and ordinarily hidden reality in order to acquire knowledge, power, and to help others.

10

taboo

a prohibition, which, if not observed, leads to a penalty inflicted by magic, spiritual force, or religion

11

rite of passage

a ritual the marks an important stage in an individual's life cycle, such as birth, marriage, and death

12

separation

in a rite of passage, the ritual removal of the individual from a society

13

transition

in a rite of passage, isolation of the individual following separation and prior to incorporation into society

14

incorporation

in a rite of passage, reincorporation of the individual into society in his or her new status

15

rite of intensification

a ritual that takes place during a crisis in the life of the group and serves to bind individuals together

16

imitative magic

magic based on the principle that like produces like, sometimes called sympathetic magic

17

contagious magic

magic based on the principle that things or persons once in contact can influence each other after the contact is broken

18

witchcraft

an explanation of events based on the belief that certain individuals possess an innate psychic power capable of causing harm, including sickness and death

19

divination

a magical procedure or spiritual ritual designed to find out what is not knowable by ordinary means, such as foretelling the future by interpreting omens

20

revitalization movement

a movement for radical cultural reform in response to widespread social disruption and collective feelings of great stress and despair

21

cargo cult

a spiritual movement (especially noted in Melanesia) in reaction to disruptive contact with Western capitalism, promising resurrection of deceased relatives, destruction or enslavement of white foreigners, and the magical arrival of utopian riches