ANTH 1000 - Ch. 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 23 Deck (16):
1

power

the ability of individuals or groups to impose their will upon others and make them do things even against their own wants or wishes

2

political organization

the way power is accumulated, arranged, executred, and structurally distributed and embedded in society; the means through which a society creates and maintains social order.

3

band

a relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits a common territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically and economically independent

4

tribe

in anthropology, refers to a range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory

5

chiefdom

a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief, who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people

6

state

in anthropology, a political institution established to manage and defend a complex,socially stratified society occupying a defined territory

7

nation

a people who whare a collective identity based ona common culture, language, territorial base, and history

8

legitimacy

the right of political leaders to govern - to hold, use, and allocate power - on the socially accepted customs, rules, or laws that bind and hold a people together as a collective whole

9

cultural control

control through beliefs and values deeply internalized in the minds of individuals

10

social control

external control through open coercion

11

sanction

an externalized social control designed to encourage conformity to social norms

12

law

formal rules of conduct that, when violated, effectuate negative sanctions

13

negotiation

the use of direct argument and compromise by the parties to a dispute to arrive voluntarily at a mutually satisfactory agreement

14

mediation

settlement of a dispute through negotiation assisted by an unbiased third party

15

adjudication

mediation with an unbiased third party making the ultimate decision

16

genocide

the physical extermination of one people by another, either as a deliberate act or as the accidental outcome of activities carried out by one people with little regard for their impact on others