Flashcards in COMM 3172 - FINAL Deck (99):
The major advantages of laboratory experiments include all of the following except:
Which of the following is NOT a good reason for developing pictorial models of communication
to increase complexity
In order to convincingly show causation, a research must establish all of the following EXCEPT
clear explanation of mediating variables
Which of the following research methods always includes a longitudinal component
Which of the following is one of the three major types of pictorial models of the communication process included in the text
social scientists studying mass media effects are primarily interested in ______-
all three are important research interests
Which of the following is the most accurate definition of communication
all of the them
which of the following types of communication is LEAST likely to involve mutual interactions
Of the three criteria for causation listed in the text, which of the following is difficult to establish through survey research
which of the following is NOT an important reason for studying media effects
the heart of the Social Cognitive Theory is _____ and it explains that humans can learn by watching.
When what we learn from the media lifts previously accepted personal contraints and restraints on an individual and motivates him or her to behave in similar manners shown in the media, the media is having a ______ effect.
Joe learned from the evening news that there was a big earthquake in Haiti. Even though Joe previously had been totally against the idea of online donation, he donated some money online to help the rescue efforts. What can we call this effect of the media?
Which of the following is NOT one of the four self-reflective modes of thought verification
Educational programming is most beneficial to children when parents:
view the programs with their children, and actively reinforce the concepts
Which one of these is NOT one of the cognitive qualities humans have
If we watch the film called "Miss Congeniality" and learn the rules of self-defence shown in the film but never actually put into practice in real life what we learned from the film scholars of Social Cognitive theory would say _______
we retained the information but did not model the behavior
John watch a Barney show and learned a song. After that day, John frequently performed the song he learned from TV to his parents when he wanted attention from them. According to Social Cognitive theory, John is at the ______ stage of modeling.
Which researcher and author is most closely associated with social learning theory
According to Social Cognitive theory, "vicarious capacity" allows us to learn by ______
Priming is based upon which theoretical concept
which of the following is not one of the variables that impact the strength of the priming effect
the perceived ease with which one could replicate the behavior
Priming effects are more likely to occur when the audience believes that
the act was justifiable
if the audience can identify with a character in a TV show, then the priming is more likely to be ____-
Priming effects are most likely to occur when audience members believe ______
that the character is a good role model
in the storage bin model, which concepts are considered the strongest in one's memory?
Priming effects are more likely to occur when audience members
believe they are seeing actual events
when priming occurs, mediated messages evoke which type of thoughts in audience members
the explanatory models of priming address which of the following issues
recency versus frequency
which of the following is NOT one of the theoretical models used to explain priming effects
recycling bin model
recent television programming has typically depicted single parents as:q
According to Hawkins and Pingree, what are the two steps involved in the cultivation process
learning and construct
the Cultural Indicators Project produced this instrument as a measure of perceptions of the level of aggression and violence in society
Mean World Index
When used by cultivation scholars, this term refers to a situation in which events in the real world offer support to the view of the world offered by television
What does "mainstreaming" refer to in cultivation theory
when the media present uniform messages that promote dominant patterns in society
Scholars within the field of the cultivation analysis are most likely to describe television in America has
the great storyteller
Which of the following is NOT one of the three components of the Cultural Indicators Project
consumer interaction analysis
Which of the followin gis NOT one of the main assumptions of Cultivation Hypothesis
viewing of television is selective
the intention of cultivation analysis is to identify and explain
Jenny has never been to Asia but what she has read and seen in the media for the past 20 years has made her believe that Asian cultures have more strict gender rules than the US. Her attitude toward Asian cultures can BEST be explained by which theory?
Which book has been called "the most influential, nonscholarly work in the history of the academic study of mass communications."
This writer was the first to openly express the belief that the press is largely influential in establishing public agenda:
Initially, agenda setting research examined the influence of news media in shaping:
people's perceptions of the world
Control over the flow of news information by media professionals is an important function called
McCombs and Shaw's original study was designed to test
Which researcher(s) designed the foundational "Chapel Hill Study"
McCombs and Shaw
According to Bernard Cohen, "the press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers ______"
what to think about
Lang's concept that includes the reciprocal interaction between the public and the media is known as:
Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of studies that fall within the parameters of agenda-setting research, as listed by the text
organizational agenda setting
According to Lippmann, the projection of reality created by the news-media creates a _____
In class we described the study of signs and sign systems as
in relation to a rose, which would be considered the SIGNIFIED?
passion or love
which type of meaning is considered to be the surface level of meaning
which of the following is one of the types of codes we discussed in class
in reference to the "sferoflex" eyewear ad we discussed, which of the following is what we concluded from the DENOTATIVE meaning
the visual tells us that "sferflex" eyewear is strong, reliable, and long lasting
A magazine ad shows a picture of a diamond necklace and reads, "Hey, what do you know. She thinks you're funny again." Under this caption , there is the emblem of the company that launched this advertising campaign, De-Bears and their usual slogan: Diamond is forever." What is the signifier in this ad?
in the De-Bears advertisement, the signified is ____-
What is the denotative meaning communicated by the same advertisement
if you buy her diamonds she will like you again
What is the connotative meaning communicated by the same advertisement
you can buy happiness
T or F: Regular exposure to mediated violence makes viewers develop an exagge3rated view of real-life dangers
T or F: Research shows that the viewers tend to accept mediated violence more easily and question it less if the perpetrator is portrayed as an attractive role model
T or F: Mediated violence has affective and cognitive effects but not behavioral effects on audience
T or F: The context within which mediated violence is viewed influences how the viewer perceives that violent act.
T or F: Despite popular belief that viewing media violence contributes to exhibiting aggressive behavior, research has consistently failed to show clear support for this belief.
T or F: Research has shown that everyone, regardless of age, experiences an emotional reaction when viewing violent content on television
The underlying question of most research on media violence is:
What effect does media violence have on those who consume it?
T or F: Most music videos that contained violence also contain sexual violence
T or F: Little empirical evidence has been found to support the assertion that viewing violence on tv serves a cathartic effect for the viewer
Which of the following is NOT one of the major mechanisms of through which mediated violence can effect viewers' behaviors:
Which term refers to a change in values or attitudes that occurs over time as a previously taboo behavior is gradually accepted because of repeated exposure to mass media:
______ is a GENERAL term used to describe media depictions of individuals engaging in various kinds of sexual activities
Zillman and Bryant found that research participants who watched sexually explicit films for six weeks were more likely than viewers of nonexplicit films to consider uncommon sexual behaviors as being
a mid-1980's study of music videos found that sexual content frequently coincided with
T or F: Studies have shown that more explicit materials may actually be less arousing than less explicit options
A content analysis of X-rated movies found all of the following themes except
the prevailing tone of sexual content is comprised of each of the following variables except
cost of viewing
the process by which viewing arousing erotic material leads to immediately enhanced aggressive tendencies is known as:
T or F: Researchers still have not found any clear evidence that there is a connection between sex crimes and sexually explicit materials
Consuming pornography on a regular basis has been found to consistently lead to all of the following except
These can be defined as abstract notions that media professionals use to present news stories in a particular way:
This theory suggests powerful effects result whenever people fear social alienation or isolation enough to keep their views to themselves
spiral of silence
which of the following IS NOT one of the four major reasons for the increasing research interest in political communication after the 1970's
increasing tension between the two world superpowers
Which of the following is one of the four common news media flaws, as identified by Bennett
Which of the following IS NOT one of the four types of research that have recently been used to examine cognitive effects from mediated political messages:
Which one of these topics can be explored under the "micro-level studies" category in political communication research?
how political communication effects political behavior and participation
Currently, the most popular time length for political television ads is:
Which one of the topics listed below does NOT concern the scholars of political communication research?
effects of the real life personality characteristics of the candidates on potential voters
Generally, the most politically active citizens are those:
with high education levels
Research suggests that voters are more likely to be persuaded by their perceptions about the economic health of the country than by:
their own financial situations
which genre most frequently includes negative minority portrayals than others?
T or F: The number of African Americans depicted in the entertainment media has been steadily increasing for the past few decades.
T or F: Recent studies show that network television is becoming more sensitive toward the portrayals of African Americans in the U.S., but the same cannot be said about the other minorities
A study of television characters in 1980 found that blacks and NAtive Americans more frequently played _____, whereas whites, Asians, and Hispanics were more likely to be ____.
T or F: The number of Hispanics and Asians represented in the media has consistently been high relative to their percentages within the US society
T or F:Some stereotypes can be positive
Which method listed below was NOT discussed int he chapter as a ways of studying minority portrayals in the media
Which one is NOT one of the direct effects of minority representations in the media?
Negatively influencing the minority policies of government
Dr. John Doe wants to study the portrayal of Hispanics in recent movies. Which one of these methods can he use to conduct his study?