COMM 3172 - FINAL Flashcards Preview

ANTH 1000 > COMM 3172 - FINAL > Flashcards

Flashcards in COMM 3172 - FINAL Deck (99):
1

The major advantages of laboratory experiments include all of the following except:

?

2

Which of the following is NOT a good reason for developing pictorial models of communication

to increase complexity

3

In order to convincingly show causation, a research must establish all of the following EXCEPT

clear explanation of mediating variables

4

Which of the following research methods always includes a longitudinal component

panel studies

5

Which of the following is one of the three major types of pictorial models of the communication process included in the text

linear

6

social scientists studying mass media effects are primarily interested in ______-

all three are important research interests

7

Which of the following is the most accurate definition of communication

all of the them

8

which of the following types of communication is LEAST likely to involve mutual interactions

mass communication

9

Of the three criteria for causation listed in the text, which of the following is difficult to establish through survey research

?

10

which of the following is NOT an important reason for studying media effects

?

11

the heart of the Social Cognitive Theory is _____ and it explains that humans can learn by watching.

vicarious capacity

12

When what we learn from the media lifts previously accepted personal contraints and restraints on an individual and motivates him or her to behave in similar manners shown in the media, the media is having a ______ effect.

disinhibitory

13

Joe learned from the evening news that there was a big earthquake in Haiti. Even though Joe previously had been totally against the idea of online donation, he donated some money online to help the rescue efforts. What can we call this effect of the media?

?

14

Which of the following is NOT one of the four self-reflective modes of thought verification

proactive

15

Educational programming is most beneficial to children when parents:

view the programs with their children, and actively reinforce the concepts

16

Which one of these is NOT one of the cognitive qualities humans have

cultural capacity

17

If we watch the film called "Miss Congeniality" and learn the rules of self-defence shown in the film but never actually put into practice in real life what we learned from the film scholars of Social Cognitive theory would say _______

we retained the information but did not model the behavior

18

John watch a Barney show and learned a song. After that day, John frequently performed the song he learned from TV to his parents when he wanted attention from them. According to Social Cognitive theory, John is at the ______ stage of modeling.

motivation

19

Which researcher and author is most closely associated with social learning theory

albert bandura

20

According to Social Cognitive theory, "vicarious capacity" allows us to learn by ______

watching others

21

Priming is based upon which theoretical concept

cognitive neoassociation

22

which of the following is not one of the variables that impact the strength of the priming effect

the perceived ease with which one could replicate the behavior

23

Priming effects are more likely to occur when the audience believes that

the act was justifiable

24

if the audience can identify with a character in a TV show, then the priming is more likely to be ____-

stronger

25

Priming effects are most likely to occur when audience members believe ______

that the character is a good role model

26

in the storage bin model, which concepts are considered the strongest in one's memory?

Recently primed

27

Priming effects are more likely to occur when audience members

believe they are seeing actual events

28

when priming occurs, mediated messages evoke which type of thoughts in audience members

semantically similar

29

the explanatory models of priming address which of the following issues

recency versus frequency

30

which of the following is NOT one of the theoretical models used to explain priming effects

recycling bin model

31

recent television programming has typically depicted single parents as:q

?

32

According to Hawkins and Pingree, what are the two steps involved in the cultivation process

learning and construct

33

the Cultural Indicators Project produced this instrument as a measure of perceptions of the level of aggression and violence in society

Mean World Index

34

When used by cultivation scholars, this term refers to a situation in which events in the real world offer support to the view of the world offered by television

resonance

35

What does "mainstreaming" refer to in cultivation theory

when the media present uniform messages that promote dominant patterns in society

36

Scholars within the field of the cultivation analysis are most likely to describe television in America has

the great storyteller

37

Which of the following is NOT one of the three components of the Cultural Indicators Project

consumer interaction analysis

38

Which of the followin gis NOT one of the main assumptions of Cultivation Hypothesis

viewing of television is selective

39

the intention of cultivation analysis is to identify and explain

?

40

Jenny has never been to Asia but what she has read and seen in the media for the past 20 years has made her believe that Asian cultures have more strict gender rules than the US. Her attitude toward Asian cultures can BEST be explained by which theory?

Cultivation theory

41

Which book has been called "the most influential, nonscholarly work in the history of the academic study of mass communications."

"Public Opinion"

42

This writer was the first to openly express the belief that the press is largely influential in establishing public agenda:

Walter Lippman

43

Initially, agenda setting research examined the influence of news media in shaping:

people's perceptions of the world

44

Control over the flow of news information by media professionals is an important function called

gatekeeping

45

McCombs and Shaw's original study was designed to test

?

46

Which researcher(s) designed the foundational "Chapel Hill Study"

McCombs and Shaw

47

According to Bernard Cohen, "the press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers ______"

what to think about

48

Lang's concept that includes the reciprocal interaction between the public and the media is known as:

?

49

Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of studies that fall within the parameters of agenda-setting research, as listed by the text

organizational agenda setting

50

According to Lippmann, the projection of reality created by the news-media creates a _____

Pseudo-environment

51

In class we described the study of signs and sign systems as

semiotics

52

in relation to a rose, which would be considered the SIGNIFIED?

passion or love

53

which type of meaning is considered to be the surface level of meaning

denotative

54

which of the following is one of the types of codes we discussed in class

gender codes

55

in reference to the "sferoflex" eyewear ad we discussed, which of the following is what we concluded from the DENOTATIVE meaning

the visual tells us that "sferflex" eyewear is strong, reliable, and long lasting

56

A magazine ad shows a picture of a diamond necklace and reads, "Hey, what do you know. She thinks you're funny again." Under this caption , there is the emblem of the company that launched this advertising campaign, De-Bears and their usual slogan: Diamond is forever." What is the signifier in this ad?

diamond necklace

57

in the De-Bears advertisement, the signified is ____-

?

58

What is the denotative meaning communicated by the same advertisement

if you buy her diamonds she will like you again

59

What is the connotative meaning communicated by the same advertisement

you can buy happiness

60

T or F: Regular exposure to mediated violence makes viewers develop an exagge3rated view of real-life dangers

True

61

T or F: Research shows that the viewers tend to accept mediated violence more easily and question it less if the perpetrator is portrayed as an attractive role model

True

62

T or F: Mediated violence has affective and cognitive effects but not behavioral effects on audience

False

63

T or F: The context within which mediated violence is viewed influences how the viewer perceives that violent act.

True

64

T or F: Despite popular belief that viewing media violence contributes to exhibiting aggressive behavior, research has consistently failed to show clear support for this belief.

False

65

T or F: Research has shown that everyone, regardless of age, experiences an emotional reaction when viewing violent content on television

True

66

The underlying question of most research on media violence is:

What effect does media violence have on those who consume it?

67

T or F: Most music videos that contained violence also contain sexual violence

True

68

T or F: Little empirical evidence has been found to support the assertion that viewing violence on tv serves a cathartic effect for the viewer

True

69

Which of the following is NOT one of the major mechanisms of through which mediated violence can effect viewers' behaviors:

avoidance

70

Which term refers to a change in values or attitudes that occurs over time as a previously taboo behavior is gradually accepted because of repeated exposure to mass media:

desensitization

71

______ is a GENERAL term used to describe media depictions of individuals engaging in various kinds of sexual activities

sexually explicit

72

Zillman and Bryant found that research participants who watched sexually explicit films for six weeks were more likely than viewers of nonexplicit films to consider uncommon sexual behaviors as being

common

73

a mid-1980's study of music videos found that sexual content frequently coincided with

violence

74

T or F: Studies have shown that more explicit materials may actually be less arousing than less explicit options

True

75

A content analysis of X-rated movies found all of the following themes except

voyeurism

76

the prevailing tone of sexual content is comprised of each of the following variables except

cost of viewing

77

the process by which viewing arousing erotic material leads to immediately enhanced aggressive tendencies is known as:

excitation transfer

78

T or F: Researchers still have not found any clear evidence that there is a connection between sex crimes and sexually explicit materials

False

79

Consuming pornography on a regular basis has been found to consistently lead to all of the following except

depression

80

These can be defined as abstract notions that media professionals use to present news stories in a particular way:

frames

81

This theory suggests powerful effects result whenever people fear social alienation or isolation enough to keep their views to themselves

spiral of silence

82

which of the following IS NOT one of the four major reasons for the increasing research interest in political communication after the 1970's

increasing tension between the two world superpowers

83

Which of the following is one of the four common news media flaws, as identified by Bennett

normalization

84

Which of the following IS NOT one of the four types of research that have recently been used to examine cognitive effects from mediated political messages:

reaction formation

85

Which one of these topics can be explored under the "micro-level studies" category in political communication research?

how political communication effects political behavior and participation

86

Currently, the most popular time length for political television ads is:

?

87

Which one of the topics listed below does NOT concern the scholars of political communication research?

effects of the real life personality characteristics of the candidates on potential voters

88

Generally, the most politically active citizens are those:

with high education levels

89

Research suggests that voters are more likely to be persuaded by their perceptions about the economic health of the country than by:

their own financial situations

90

which genre most frequently includes negative minority portrayals than others?

?

91

T or F: The number of African Americans depicted in the entertainment media has been steadily increasing for the past few decades.

True

92

T or F: Recent studies show that network television is becoming more sensitive toward the portrayals of African Americans in the U.S., but the same cannot be said about the other minorities

True

93

A study of television characters in 1980 found that blacks and NAtive Americans more frequently played _____, whereas whites, Asians, and Hispanics were more likely to be ____.

killers/victims

94

T or F: The number of Hispanics and Asians represented in the media has consistently been high relative to their percentages within the US society

False

95

T or F:Some stereotypes can be positive

True

96

Which method listed below was NOT discussed int he chapter as a ways of studying minority portrayals in the media

?

97

Which one is NOT one of the direct effects of minority representations in the media?

Negatively influencing the minority policies of government

98

Dr. John Doe wants to study the portrayal of Hispanics in recent movies. Which one of these methods can he use to conduct his study?

?

99

Current research shows that aLL BUT ONE listed below are the major issues related to minority portrayals in the media

?