ANTH 1000 - Ch. 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 3 Deck (30):
1

nocturnal

active at night and at rest during the day

2

arboreal

living in the trees

3

diurnal

active during the day and rest at night

4

grade

a general level of biological organization seen among a group of species; useful for constructing evolutionary relationship

5

clade

a taxonomic grouping that contains a single common ancestor and all of its descendants

6

Prosimii

a suborder of primates that includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers

7

Anthropoidea

a suborder of the primates that includes New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes (including humans)

8

Strepsirhini

in the alternate primate taxonomy, the suborder that includes the lemurs and larises without the tarsiers

9

Haplorhini

in the alternate primate taxonomy, the suborder that includes tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans

10

Platyrrhini

a primate infraorder that include New World monkeys

11

Catarrhini

A primate infraorder that includes Old World monkeys, apes, and humans

12

hominoid

The taxonomic division superfamily withint the Old World primates that includes gibbons, siamangs, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans

13

hominid

African hominoid family that includes humans and their ancestors. Some scientists, recognizing the close relationship of humans, chimps, bonobos, and gorillas, use the term hominid to refer to all African hominoids. They then divide the hominid family into two subfamilies: the Paninae (chimps, bonobos, and gorillas) and the Homininae (humans and their ancestors).

14

hominin

the taxonomic subfamily or tribe within the primates that includes humans and our ancestors

15

dental formula

the number of each tooth type (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars) on one half of each jaw. Unlike other mammals, primates posses equal numbers on their upper and lower jaws so the dental formula for the species is a single series of numbers

16

sexual dimorphism

within a single species, difference between males and females in the shape or size of a feature not directly related to reproduction, such as body size or canine tooth shape and size

17

binocular vision

vision with increased depth perception from two eyes set next to each other, allowing their visual fields to overlap

18

stereoscopic vision

complete three-dimensional vision (or depth perception) from binocular vision and nerve connections that run from each eye to both sides of the brain, allowing nerve cells to integrate the images derived from each eye

19

fovea centralis

a shallow pit in the retina of the eye that enables an animal to focus on an object while maintaining visual contact with its surroundings

20

ecological niche

a species' way of life considered in the full context of its environment, including factors, such as diet, activity, terrain, vegetation, predators, prey, and climate

21

vertebrate

an animal with a backbone, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

22

cranium

the braincase of the skull

23

foramen magnum

a large opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes and connects to the brain

24

clavicle

the collarbone connecting the sternum (breastbone) with the scapula (shoulder blade)

25

suspensory hanging apparatus

the broad powerful shoulder joints and muscles found in all the hominoids, allowing these large bodies primates to hang suspended below the tree branches

26

scapula

the shoulder blade

27

brachiation

using the arms to move from branch to branch, with the body hanging suspended beneath the arms

28

prehensile

having the ability to grasp

29

opposable

able to bring the thumb or big toein contact with the tips of the other digits on the same hand or foot in order to grasp objects

30

demographics

population characteristics such as the number of individuals of each age and sex