ANTH 1000 - Ch. 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 18 Deck (17):
1

ecosystem

a system, or a functioning whole, composed of both the natural environment and all the organisms living within it

2

cultural evolution

cultural change over time; not to be confused with progress

3

progress

the notion that humans are moving forward to a better, more advanced stage in their cultural development toward perfection

4

convergent evolution

in cultural evolution, the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by different peoples with different ancestral cultures

5

parallel evolution

in cultural evolution, the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by people whose ancestral cultures were already somewhat alike

6

culture area

a geographic region in which a number of societies follow similar patterns of life

7

culture core

cultural features that are fundamental in the society's way of making its living - including food-producing techniques, knowledge of available resources, and the work arrangements involved in applying those techniques to the local environment

8

food foraging

hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods

9

carrying capacity

the number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques

10

Neolithic

the New Stone Age; prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated plants and/or animals

11

Neolithic revolution

The profound cultural change beginning about 10,000 years ago and associate with the early domestication of plants and animals and settlement in permanent villages

12

horticulture

cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes

13

slash-and-burn cultivation

an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops are thenm planted among the ashes; also knowns as swidden farming

14

agriculture

the cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production. Involves using technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals

15

pastoralism

breeding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing and browsing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses, llamas, or camels

16

peasant

a rural cultivator whose surpluses are transferred to a dominant group of rulers that uses the surpluses both to underwrite its own standard of living and to distribute the remainder to groups in society that do not farm but must be fed for their specific goods and services in turn

17

agribusiness

large-scale businesses involved in food production, including farming, contract farming, seed supply, agrichemicals, farm machinery, distribution, processing, and marketing. Also known as corporate farming, it stands in contrast to smaller family-owned farms