ANTH 1000 - Ch. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 2 Deck (47):
1

primate

the group of mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans

2

mammal

the class of vertebrate animals distinguished by bodies covered with fur, self-regulating temperature, and, in females, milk-producing mammary glands

3

species

the smallest working units in the system of classification. Among living organisms, ____ are populations or groups of populations capable of interbreeding and producing fertile viable offspring.

4

genus (genera, pl.)

in the system of plant and animal classification, a group of like species.

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taxonomy

the science of classification

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analogies

in biology, structures possessed by different organisms that are superficially similar due to similar function, without sharing a common developmental pathway or structure

7

homologies

in biology, structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development through they may possess different functions

8

notochord

a rodlike structure of cartilage that, in vertebrates, is replaced by the vertebral column

9

natural selection

the evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation

10

gene

a portion of the DNA molecule containing a sequence of base pairs that is the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity

11

law of segregation

the Mendelian principle that varients of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through the generations

12

law of independent assortment

the Mendelian principle that genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another

13

chromosomes

in the cell nucleus, the structures visible during cellular division containing long strand of DNA combined with a protein

14

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid. The genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose base structure directs the synthesis of proteins

15

chromatid

one half of the "X" shape of chromosomes visible once replication is complete. Sister _____ are exact copies of each other.

16

codon

three-base sequence of a gene that specifies a particular amino acid for inclusion in a protein

17

RNA

ribonucleic acid; similar to DNA but with uracil substituted for the base thymine. Transcribes and carries instructions from DNA from the nucleus to the ribosomes, where it directs protein synthesis. Some simple life forms contain RNA only.

18

transcription

process of conversion of instructions from DNA into RNA

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ribosomes

structures in the cell where translation occurs

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translation

process of conversion of RNA instructions into proteins

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genetic code

the sequence of three bases (a codon) that specifies the sequence of amino acids in protein synthesis

22

alleles

alternate forms of a single gene

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enzyme

protein that initiates and directs chemical reactions

24

genome

the complete structure sequence of DNA for a species

25

mitosis

a kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosome pairs, and hence copies of genes, as the parent cell.

26

meiosis

a kind of cell division that produces the sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism

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homozygous

refers to a chromosome pair that bears identical alleles for a single gene.

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heterozygous

refers to a chromosome pair that bears different alleles for a single gene.

29

genotype

the alleles possessed for a particular gene

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phenotype

the observable characteristic of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive alleles

31

dominance

the ability of one allele for a trait to mask the presence of another allele

32

recessive

an allele for a trait whose expression is masked by the presence of a dominant allele

33

hemoglobin

the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells

34

polygenetic inheritance

when two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic

35

population

in biology, a group of similar individuals that can and do interbreed

36

gene pool

all the genetic variants possessed by members of a population

37

evolution

changes in allele frequencies in populations; also known as microevolution

38

Hardy-Weinberg principle

demonstrates algebraically that the percentages of individuals that are homozygous for the dominant allele, homozygous for the recessive allel, and heterozygous should remain constant from one generation to the next, provided that certain specified conditions are met

39

mutation

chance alteration of genetic material that produces new variation

40

genetic drift

chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population

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founder effects

a particular form of genetic drift deriving from a small founding population not possessing all the alleles present in the original population

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gene flow

the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another

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adaptation

a series of beneficial adjustments to the environment

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reproductive success

the relative production of fertile offspring by a genotype. in practical terms, the number of offspring produced by individual members of a population is tallied and compared to that of others

45

stabilizing selection

natural selection acting to promote stability rather than change in a population's gene pool

46

sickle-cell anemia

an inherited form of anemia caused by a mutation in the hemoglobin protein that causes the red blood cells to assum a sickle shape.

47

clines

gradual changes in the frequency of an allele or trait over space