Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 2 Deck (47):
the group of mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
the class of vertebrate animals distinguished by bodies covered with fur, self-regulating temperature, and, in females, milk-producing mammary glands
the smallest working units in the system of classification. Among living organisms, ____ are populations or groups of populations capable of interbreeding and producing fertile viable offspring.
genus (genera, pl.)
in the system of plant and animal classification, a group of like species.
the science of classification
in biology, structures possessed by different organisms that are superficially similar due to similar function, without sharing a common developmental pathway or structure
in biology, structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development through they may possess different functions
a rodlike structure of cartilage that, in vertebrates, is replaced by the vertebral column
the evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation
a portion of the DNA molecule containing a sequence of base pairs that is the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity
law of segregation
the Mendelian principle that varients of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through the generations
law of independent assortment
the Mendelian principle that genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another
in the cell nucleus, the structures visible during cellular division containing long strand of DNA combined with a protein
Deoxyribonucleic acid. The genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose base structure directs the synthesis of proteins
one half of the "X" shape of chromosomes visible once replication is complete. Sister _____ are exact copies of each other.
three-base sequence of a gene that specifies a particular amino acid for inclusion in a protein
ribonucleic acid; similar to DNA but with uracil substituted for the base thymine. Transcribes and carries instructions from DNA from the nucleus to the ribosomes, where it directs protein synthesis. Some simple life forms contain RNA only.
process of conversion of instructions from DNA into RNA
structures in the cell where translation occurs
process of conversion of RNA instructions into proteins
the sequence of three bases (a codon) that specifies the sequence of amino acids in protein synthesis
alternate forms of a single gene
protein that initiates and directs chemical reactions
the complete structure sequence of DNA for a species
a kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosome pairs, and hence copies of genes, as the parent cell.
a kind of cell division that produces the sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism
refers to a chromosome pair that bears identical alleles for a single gene.
refers to a chromosome pair that bears different alleles for a single gene.
the alleles possessed for a particular gene
the observable characteristic of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive alleles
the ability of one allele for a trait to mask the presence of another allele
an allele for a trait whose expression is masked by the presence of a dominant allele
the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells
when two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic
in biology, a group of similar individuals that can and do interbreed
all the genetic variants possessed by members of a population
changes in allele frequencies in populations; also known as microevolution
demonstrates algebraically that the percentages of individuals that are homozygous for the dominant allele, homozygous for the recessive allel, and heterozygous should remain constant from one generation to the next, provided that certain specified conditions are met
chance alteration of genetic material that produces new variation
chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population
a particular form of genetic drift deriving from a small founding population not possessing all the alleles present in the original population
the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another
a series of beneficial adjustments to the environment
the relative production of fertile offspring by a genotype. in practical terms, the number of offspring produced by individual members of a population is tallied and compared to that of others
natural selection acting to promote stability rather than change in a population's gene pool
an inherited form of anemia caused by a mutation in the hemoglobin protein that causes the red blood cells to assum a sickle shape.