ANTH 1000 - Ch. 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 16 Deck (42):
1

language

a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules

2

symbol

a mark, sound, gesture, motion, or other sign that is arbitrarily linked to something else and represents it in a meaningful way

3

signal

an instinctive sound or gesture that has a natural or self-evident meaning

4

linguistics

the modern scientific study of all aspects of language

5

phonetics

the systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language

6

phonology

the study of language sounds

7

phonemes

the smallest units of sounds that make a difference in meaning in a language

8

morphology

the study of the patterns or rules of word formation in a language (including such things as rules concerning verb tense, pluralization, and compound words)

9

morphemes

the smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language. They are distinct from phonemes, which can alter meaning, but have not meaning by themselves

10

syntax

the patterns or rules by which words are arranged into phrases and sentences

11

grammar

the entire formal structure of a language, including morphology and syntax

12

language family

a group of languages descended from a single ancestral language

13

linguistic divergence

the development of different languages from a single ancestral language

14

glottochronology

in linguistics, a method for identifying the approximate time that languages branched off from a common ancestor; based on analyzing core vocabularies

15

core vocabulary

the most basic and long-lasting words in any language - pronouns, lower numerals, and names for body parts and natural objects

16

linguistic nationalism

the attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms

17

sociolinguistics

the study of the relationship between language and society through examining how social categories (such as age, gender, ethnicity, religion, occupation, and class) influence the use and significance of distinctive styles of speech

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gendered speech

distinct male and female speech patterns, which vary across social and cultural settings

19

dialects

varying forms of language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible

20

code switching

changing from one mode of speech to another as the situation demands, whether from one language to another or from one dialect of a language to another

21

ethnolinguistics

a branch of linguistics that studies the relationships between language and culture and how they mutually influence and inform each other

22

linguistic relativity

the idea that distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language

23

linguistic determinism

the idea that language to some extent shapes the way in which we view and think about the world around us

24

gestures

facial expressions and body postures and motions that convey intended as well as subconscious messages

25

kinesics

a system of notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and body motions that convey messages

26

proxemics

the cross-cultural study of people's perception and use of space3

27

paralanguage

voice effects that accompany language and convey meaning. These include vocalizations such as giggling, groaning, or sighing, as well as voice qualities such as pitch and tempo

28

tonal language

a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning

29

whistled speech

an exchange of whistled words using a phonetic emulation of the sounds produced in spoken voice; also known as whistled language

30

displacement

referring to things and events removed in time and space

31

writing system

a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way

32

alphabet

a series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in a traditional order

33

phonetics

The systematic study of the production, transmission, and reception of speech sounds is _________.

34

language

A system of communication based on symbols is called a __________.

35

...they take no more than 50 sounds and put them together in meaningful ways according to rules that can be determined by linguists

All languages are organized on the same basic plan in that __________.

36

whether or not the speakers of Apache or Navajo once spoke a common language

Which of the following would be an acceptable research topic in the field of historical linguistics

37

False

T or F: Glottochronology assumes that the rate at which a language's core vocabulary changes is variable and thus cannot be used to give an exact date for when two languages diverged

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False

T or F: Linguistic nationalism refers to the establishment of a nation which everyone speaks only one language.

39

Kinesics

Paralanguage is to speech as __________ is to position of the body

40

any form of body language

Kinesics is a method for notating and analyzing __________.

41

phoneme

The smallest class of sound that makes a difference in meaning is a ___________.

42

(not phonetics)

The study of abstract rules that guide the sound patterns of a language is called __________.