Flashcards in ANTH 1000 - Ch. 16 Deck (42):
a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
a mark, sound, gesture, motion, or other sign that is arbitrarily linked to something else and represents it in a meaningful way
an instinctive sound or gesture that has a natural or self-evident meaning
the modern scientific study of all aspects of language
the systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language
the study of language sounds
the smallest units of sounds that make a difference in meaning in a language
the study of the patterns or rules of word formation in a language (including such things as rules concerning verb tense, pluralization, and compound words)
the smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language. They are distinct from phonemes, which can alter meaning, but have not meaning by themselves
the patterns or rules by which words are arranged into phrases and sentences
the entire formal structure of a language, including morphology and syntax
a group of languages descended from a single ancestral language
the development of different languages from a single ancestral language
in linguistics, a method for identifying the approximate time that languages branched off from a common ancestor; based on analyzing core vocabularies
the most basic and long-lasting words in any language - pronouns, lower numerals, and names for body parts and natural objects
the attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms
the study of the relationship between language and society through examining how social categories (such as age, gender, ethnicity, religion, occupation, and class) influence the use and significance of distinctive styles of speech
distinct male and female speech patterns, which vary across social and cultural settings
varying forms of language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible
changing from one mode of speech to another as the situation demands, whether from one language to another or from one dialect of a language to another
a branch of linguistics that studies the relationships between language and culture and how they mutually influence and inform each other
the idea that distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language
the idea that language to some extent shapes the way in which we view and think about the world around us
facial expressions and body postures and motions that convey intended as well as subconscious messages
a system of notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and body motions that convey messages
the cross-cultural study of people's perception and use of space3
voice effects that accompany language and convey meaning. These include vocalizations such as giggling, groaning, or sighing, as well as voice qualities such as pitch and tempo
a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning
an exchange of whistled words using a phonetic emulation of the sounds produced in spoken voice; also known as whistled language
referring to things and events removed in time and space
a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way
a series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in a traditional order
The systematic study of the production, transmission, and reception of speech sounds is _________.
A system of communication based on symbols is called a __________.
...they take no more than 50 sounds and put them together in meaningful ways according to rules that can be determined by linguists
All languages are organized on the same basic plan in that __________.
whether or not the speakers of Apache or Navajo once spoke a common language
Which of the following would be an acceptable research topic in the field of historical linguistics
T or F: Glottochronology assumes that the rate at which a language's core vocabulary changes is variable and thus cannot be used to give an exact date for when two languages diverged
T or F: Linguistic nationalism refers to the establishment of a nation which everyone speaks only one language.
Paralanguage is to speech as __________ is to position of the body
any form of body language
Kinesics is a method for notating and analyzing __________.
The smallest class of sound that makes a difference in meaning is a ___________.