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Flashcards in Autonomics Deck (142):
1

True or False: There is very little sympathetic innervation to the bronchial smooth muscle

True

2

True or False: There is very little sympathetic innervation to the bronchial glands.

False

3

Neurotransmitter of Somatic

Ach

4

Neurotransmitter of PreG Sympathetic

Ach

5

Neurotransmitter of PostG Sympathetic except Sweat Glands

NE

6

Neurotransmitter of PostG Sympathetic to Sweat Glands

Ach

7

Neurotransmitter of Sympathetic to Adrenal Gland

Ach

8

Adrenal Gland releases...

EPI / Ne

9

Neurotransmitter of PreG and PostG of Parasympathetic

Ach

10

Neurotransmitter of all PreG

Ach

11

Neurotransmitter in the peripheral efferent nerves

Ach, NE, NO

12

Adrenergic drugs use...

NE or Epi

13

Which NT is important for coordinating?

Dopamine

14

Too much of which NT can result in schizophrenia?

Dopamine

15

Inhibitory NT in the brain?

GABA

16

Stimulatory NT in the brain?

Glutamate

17

Too much of which NT can result in epileptic seizures?

Glutamate

18

What lipid transmitter substance is required for implantation of the embryo on uterus?

Anandamide

19

What gas transmitter substance is produced in the inner lining of endothelial cells?

NO

20

In the NO mechanism of action what acts on GTP to from cGMP?

Guanylate cyclase

21

In the NO mechanism of action of substance reduces Calcium causing muscle relaxation?

cGMP

22

In the NO mechanism of action what controls levels of cGMP and is a target for ED drugs like Viagra?

PDE5

23

Which CNS NT? Phys: perception, cognition, motor movements, prolactin secretion, elation, euphoria

Dopamine

24

Which CNS NT? PathPhys: Scizophreniz, Parkinsons, Tic disorders, addiction

Dopamine

25

Which CNS NT? Phys: memory, motor movements

Ach

26

Which CNS NT? PathPhys: Alzheimers, Parkinsons

Ach

27

Which CNS NT? Phys: arousal, consciousness, motor control, muscle tone

GABA

28

Which CNS NT? PathoPhys: anxiety, mania, seizures, spastic disorders

GABA

29

Transmitter substances in afferent nerves?

Substance P, calcitonin gene related peptides

30

NT of PostG fibers for sex organs and some PostG in the intestine and lower esophageal sphincter

NO

31

Where NE is stored and released in SNS?

varicosities

32

NE and Epi are synthesized from...

tyrosine

33

Tyrosine is converted to Dopa by...

tyrosine hydroxylase

34

Dopa converted to dopamine by...

aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase

35

dopamine to NE by...

dopamine-B-hydroxylase

36

True or False: 80% of NE is retaken back into the varicosity?

True

37

NE is converted to Epi by...

PNMT (phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase)

38

What drug inhibits conversion of tyrosine to DOPA by tyrosine hydroxylase and is treatment for Pheochromocytoma?

a-methyl-p-tyrosine, Metyrosine (Demser)

39

What drug inhibits conversion of DOPA to dopamine in the periphery because it cant cross the BBB and is used in adjunct to treat Parkinsons with L-DOPA?

Carbidopa

40

What drug reduces activity of B-hydroxylase (converts dopamine to NE) and is used to treat alchoholism?

Disulifiram

41

What drug inhibits uptake of dopamine and NE into synaptic vesicles and is used to treat hypertension and psychosis to reduce agitation in horses?

Reserpine

42

Reserpine inhibits...

VMAT

43

What drug is used to treat pregnancy induced hypertension?

a-methyldopa (Aldomet)

44

What drug inhibits NE release and is used for intensive care or coronary care of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias?

Bretylium tosylate

45

What drugs inhibit amine transporters resulting in NE buildup in synaptic cleft? (also inhibits uptake of Dopamine and serotonin)

Cocaine, tricyclic antidepressants

46

What drugs pump NE out of the nerves?

Amphetamine and tyramine

47

What is an example of tricyclic anitdepressants that is used for treatment of depression and migraine headache?

Desipramine

48

A therapeutic use of Cocaine?

diagnosis of Horners syndrome

49

Metabolites of NE and Epi?

VMA, MOPEG, MHPG, metanephrine, normetanephrine

50

Metabolites of dopamine?

HMA, DOPAC

51

What drug inhibits MAO-A and -B and is used for treatment of depression, panic disorders, and social phobia?

Phenelzine

52

What drug is a MAO-B (specific) inhibitor and is used with or w/o L-DOPA in treatment of Parkinsons, depression and dementia?

Selegiline

53

What drug is a COMT inhibitor and is used as adjunct w/ L-DOPA for parkinsons?

Entacapone

54

Two drugs used as adjunct with L-DOPA?

Carpidopa and Entacapone

55

Epi is agonist of...

A1, A2, B1, B2

56

NE is agonist of...

A1, A2, B1

57

Phenylephrine is agonist of...

A1

58

Which receptor agonists?: vasoconstriction (blood vessels), contraction of radial muscle (eye), decrease tone and motility (GIT), contraction of sphincter muscle (GIT and bladder)

A1

59

Which receptor do blood vessels not have?

B1

60

A1 agonists?

NE, Epi, phenylephrine

61

Clonidine is agonist of...

A2

62

A2 agonists?

NE, Epi, Clonidine

63

Which receptor agonists?: vasoconstriction (blood vessels), platelet aggregation (platelets), decrease tone and motility (GIT), hypotension (by its action of the RVLM)

A2

64

Which A2 agonist vasocontricts in the periphery but in the brain causes hypotenstion = net effect lowers BP?

Clonidine

65

B1 agonists?

Epi, NE, Isoproterenol, Dobutamine

66

Isoproterenol is agonist of...

B1, B2

67

Dobutamine is agonist of...

B1, higher doses: B2, A1

68

Which receptor agonists?: cardiac stimulation (heart), fatty acid mobilization (adipose tissue), decrease tone and motility (GIT), increase renin release (kidney)

B1

69

B2 agonists (short duration)?

Epi, Isoproterenol, Albuterol

70

B2 agonist (long duration)?

Salmeterol, Formoterol, Indacaterol

71

Which receptor agonists?: dilation of arteries and veins, relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, relaxation of GIT smooth muscle, increase insulin secretion, relaxation (pregnant) (uterus)

B2

72

Conducting system in the heart primary receptor is...

B1

73

Which receptor relaxes bronchial smooth muscle?

B2

74

Which receptor?: vascular relaxation (renal and mesenteric blood vessels), natriusesis and diruesis (kidney), stimulation of PTH release (parathyroids)

D1 (dopaminergic receptor)

75

Indirect acting amines?

amphetamine and tyramine

76

Mixed action (direct and indirect)?

ephedrine and metaraminol

77

Direct acting?

NE and Epi

78

mydriasis?

dilation of eye

79

miosis?

constriction of eye

80

Which receptor agonists cause pupil dilation?

A1

81

Treatment of bronchial asthma or COPD?

Albuterol, Salmeterol, Formoterol, Indacaterol (B2)

82

Treatment of anaphylatic shock,

Epi and anithistamines

83

Treat of nasal congestion?

Phenylephrine (A1)

84

Used with local anesthetics in dentistry to prolong duration of action by vasoconstriction?

Epi

85

Drug used to treat short term cardiac decompensation after cardiac surgery or in congestive heart failure?

dobutamine (B1)

86

Drug (not cocaine) used to diagnose Horners syndrome?

hydroxyamphetamine

87

Drugs used to treat narcolepsy?

amphetamine and ephedrine, Modafinil

88

Two nonselective A-adrenergic receptor antagonists of A1 and A2?

Phenoxybenzamine and Phentolamine

89

Drugs that end in -sin (or -cin) are...?

A1 adrenergic receptor antagonists

90

What receptor causes lipolysis?

B1

91

What class of drugs? therapeutic uses: hypertention, pheochromocytoma, peripheral vascular disease, shock, pulmonary congestion, erectile dysfunction, reversal of anesthesia (dentsitry), benign prostatic hypertrophy

A adrenergic receptor antagonists

92

Drugs that end in -lol are...?

B adrenergic receptor antagonists

93

B adrenergic receptor antagonists of B1 and B2?

Timolol and Propanolol

94

B adrenergic receptor antagonists of B1?

Atenolol, Metoprolol, Nebivolol (NO release)

95

Adrenergic receptor antagonists of B1, B2, A1?

Labetalol

96

What class of drugs? therapeutic uses: cardiac arrhythmias, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarctions, angina pectoris

B adrenergic receptor antagonists

97

What class of drugs? therapeutic uses: acute dissecting aortic aneurysm (Marfan's syndrome), Fallot's tetrology, Congestive heart failure

B adrenergic receptor antagonists

98

What class of drugs? therapeutic uses: reflex tachycardia, stress or fear induced tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, glaucoma, migraine

B adrenergic receptor antagonists

99

Contraindications to using B Blockers?

Patients with AV block, diabetics on insulin, bronchial asthma

100

What inhibits vesicle membrane fusion during Ach synthesis?

Botulinum toxin

101

Blocker of muscarinic receptors?

Atropine

102

Blocker of nicotinic (N1) receptors at PreG receptors?

Hexamethonium

103

Blocker of nicotinic (N2) receptors at neuromuscular junction?

Curare

104

What are the choline esters?

Ach, Methacholine, Carbachol, Bethanechol

105

What drug is an alkaloid?

Pilocarpine

106

What drug is an oxathiolane derivative?

Cevimeline

107

Parasympathetic response of iris sphincter muscle?

contraction, miosis

108

Parasympathetic response of ciliary muscle?

contraction, accommodation of near vision

109

parasympathetic response of lacrimal and salivary glands?

secretion

110

parasympathetic response of heart SA node?

decrease activity--> bradycardia

111

parasympathetic response of atrial muscle

decrease contractility

112

parasympathetic response of AV node?

decrease conduction velocity

113

parasympathetic response of bronchial smooth muscle?

contraction

114

parasympathetic response of bronchial glands?

increase secretions

115

parasympathetic response of GIT?

increase tone/motility and increase secretions

116

parasympathetic response of urinary bladder- detrusor muscle?

increase tone- contraction

117

parasympathetic response of trigone and sphincter muscles?

decrease tone- relaxation

118

parasympathetic response of blood vessels?

no effect

119

Muscarinic agent used to test for miosis after cataract surgery?

Ach

120

Muscarinic agent used in diagnosis of asthma?

methacholine

121

Muscarinic agent used to treat glaucoma and produce miosis?

carbachol

122

Muscarinic agent used for tx of post operative urinary retention

bethanechol

123

muscarinic agent used topically for glaucoma and xerostomia?

pilocarpine

124

muscarinic agent used for tx of xerostomia associated with Sjogrens?

cevimeline

125

Never administer synthetic choline esters with...?

I.V.

126

Atropa belladonna is...?

atropine

127

Antimuscarinic that dilates the pupil?

tropicamide

128

antimuscarinic used to prevent urinary bladder action?

solifenacin

129

animuscarnics used for treatment of parkinsons?

benzotropin and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride

130

antimuscarinic that prevents motion sickness?

scopolamine

131

two ganglionic blocking drugs?

hexametholnium (quarternary ammonium compound) and mecamylamine (secondary amine)

132

drug used for treatment of Tourettes?

mecamylamine

133

Major competitive agents of Ach in skeletal muscle?

d-Tubocururine, Cis-atracurium, pancuronium

134

depolarizing agents in skeletal muscle (initially stimulates but then desensitizes receptors?

succinylcholine

135

inhalational anesthetics synergistic with the competitive neuromuscular blockers?

ether, halothane, isoflurane

136

Anticholinesterase drug used for tx of glaucoma and Alzheimers

physostigmine

137

Anticholinesterase drug used in diagnosis of Myastenia gravis?

edrophonium

138

Anticholinesterase drug used in diagnosis and tx of myasthenia gravis, postoperative atony of guy and bladder, and curare overdose

neostigmine

139

Irreversible inhibitor (anticholinesterase) used clinically?

DFP

140

Irreversible inhibitors (anticholinesterase) that are insecticides?

malathion, fenthion, diazinon

141

Three nerve gases?

tabun, sarin, soman

142

What is a cholinesterase reactivator?

pralidoxime