Hypertensive drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hypertensive drugs Deck (43):
1

centrally acting agent; converted to a false transmitter in CNS neurons that will activate presynaptic a2 receptors and decrease NT release; decreased SNS; reduced CO, HR, renin release and TPR

alpha-methyl DOPA

2

centrally acting agent: alpha2 agonist; decreased SNS activity, no reflex; reduced CO, HR, renin release and TPR

clonidine

3

adrenergic neuron blocker: depletes CNS and peripheral NE and 5-HT as well as adrenal catecholamines by interfering with storage vesicles; least desirable of all antihypertensives (but cheap and effective)

reserpine

4

adrenergic neuron blocker: inhibits the synthesis of catecholamines by tyrosine hydroxylase; good for management of pheochromocytoma

metyrosine

5

adrenergic neuron blocker: non-selective alpha-AR antagonist; used to diagnose pheochromocytoma or reverse severe vasoconstriction

phentolamine mesylate

6

alpha1 AR selective antagonists

prazosin, doxazosin, terazosin

7

block peripheral postjunctional AR receptors that cause contraction of vascular SM; decrease TPR; reflex increase in HR; 1st dose effect: postural hypotension; retention of Na and H2O

prazosin, doxazosin, terazosin

8

beta blockers that cross the BBB

propranolol, timolol, metoprolol, pindolol, alprenolol, oxprenolol, labetalol, carvedilol

9

non selective B blockers

nadolol, propranolol, timolol

10

cardioselective (block B1 more than B2) B blockers

acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol, esmolol

11

ISA (partial agonists) B blockers

pindolol, alprenolol, oxprenolol

12

alpha and beta blockers

lametalol and carvedilol

13

simple beta blockers (cardioselective)

-olol (A-M)

14

simple beta blockers
(nonselective)

-olol (N-Z)

15

3rd gen B blocker; highest affinity of all B blockers for B1 (low B2 affinity); vasodilation via stimulation of endothelial NO

nebivolol

16

adverse effects of which group?: bronchospasm, bradycardia, renal vasoconstriction, depression, bad dreams, fatigue, impotence, elevated triglycerides, lowered HDL, worsening of peripheral vascular diseases such as Reynauds

b blockers

17

block AngI to AngII conversion in endothelial cells of the lung; many are prodrugs

ACE Inhibitors

18

ACE inhibitors

lisinopril and other -prils

19

block AT1 receptors to induce vasodilation; also increase Na and water excretion

angiotensin receptor antagonists

20

angiotensin receptor antagonists

losartan, valsartan and other -tans

21

which group of drugs increase bradykinin levels due to inhibition of bradykinin metabolism?

ACE inhibitors

22

fetotoxicity; angioedema

ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists

23

next most common adverse effect of ACE inhibitors

dry irritating cough

24

in comparison to ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists do not cause ...

dry cough

25

directly inhibits the protease activity of renin

renin inhibitor

26

renin inhibitor

aliskiren

27

must not combine renin inhibitor with ... or ... in diabetics

ACE-Is or ARBs

28

these drugs inhibit L-type Ca channels in the heart and vasculature, reducing contraction

Ca channel blockers

29

3 classes of Ca channel blockers

phenylalkylamines and benzothiazipines (nondihydropyridines); dihydropyridines

30

phenylalkylamine

verapamil

31

benzothiazipine

diltiazem

32

dihydropyridine

nifedipine

33

Ca channel blockers act on ...

L-type Ca channels

34

dihydropyridines are

selective vasodilators

35

non-dihyrdopyridines are .... for cardiac tissue and vasculature

equipotent

36

verapamil can cause ... when combined with a B blocker

AV block

37

all CCBs can cause

gingival hyperplasia

38

direct vasodilators; decrease TPR by relaxing arterioles followed by reflex tachycardia, increased contractility and increased renin secretion

hydralazine, minoxidil, diazoxide

39

direct vasodilator: red blood cells metabolize it into NO; induces SM relaxation (both arteries and veins); decreases TPR but also venous pooling (decrease venous return and CO); used to induce hypotension for surgery

sodium nitroprusside

40

hypertrichosis (useful as Rogain)

minoxidil

41

cyanide toxicity

sodium nitroprusside

42

... reduce the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors and B blockers

NSAIDs

43

use of ... is dangerous in patients taking non selective B blockers and AR neuron blocking agents

EPI