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Flashcards in Diuretics Deck (22):
1

osmotic diuretics

mannitol and also sorbitol and isosorbide

2

MoA: the osmolarity in the proximal tubule remains constant and by introducing a non reabsorbable solute, the reasbsorption of H2O is reduced by increased osmotic force in tubule

osmotic diuretics (importantly Mannitol)

3

Never use osmotic diuretic in patients with ...

CHF

4

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

acetazolamide, methazolamide, dichlorphenamide

5

CA inhibitor: the first orally efficacious diuretic

acetazolamide

6

CA inhibitor: more lipophilic, better absorbed

methazolamide

7

CA inhibitor: 30x more potent than acetazolamide

dichlorphenamide

8

which group?: block exchange of H+ for Na+ and promote NaHCO3 excretions (alkalinize the urine); side effect: metabolic acidosis

CA inhibitors

9

which group:? MoA: the major site of action is the early distal tubule where they inhibit the electroneutral Na/Cl cotransporter on the luminal side leading to loss of Na, K and water in the urine

thiazide diuretics

10

thiazide diuretics

hydrochlorothiazide, chlorothiazide, chlorothalidone

11

diuretic of choice in the treatment of mild to moderate CHF and 1st choice to treat hypertension or edema stemming from chronic liver or renal disease

thiazide diuretics

12

1st side effect of thiazide diuretics

hypokalemia

13

hypokalemia: caution at plasma K+ below ... mEq/L

3.5

14

which group?: MoA: inhibit Na/K/2Cl symporter in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (site of 15-20% of Na reabsorption); leads to loss of water and Ca in the urine

loop diuretics

15

loop diuretics

furosemide, ethacrynic acid, torsemide, bumetanide

16

most commonly used loop diuretic

furosemide

17

more potent loop diuretic

bumetanide

18

major side effect of loop diuretics

hypokalemia

19

produce a peak diuresis much greater than that observed with the other commonly used diuretics, hence the name "high-ceiling diuretics"; quick onset (30 min) and short duration of activity (about 6 hrs)

loos diuretics

20

which group?: mild diuretics, frequently administered with a 2nd diuretic to restrict potassium loss

potassium sparing diuretics

21

potassium sparing diuretics

spironolactone, tremeterene, amilioride

22

most important potassium sparing diuretic and aldosterone antagonist

spironolactone