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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (96):
1

Alpha cells?

glucagon

2

Beta cells?

insulin

3

Delta cells?

somatostatin

4

Regular insulin?

short-acting insulin

5

Humulin is made using...?

recombinant DNA to produce the hormone in bacteria or yeast

6

Novolin is made by...?

switing the aa that is different in pork insulin

7

What is an analogue of Humulin in which the normal proline B28 and lysine B29 are switched?

insulin lispro (Humalog)

8

What is a recombinant human insulin analog for use as an injection (once a day)? (shifted isoelectric point insulins)

insulin glargine

9

Insulin glargine differs from human insulin in Asparagine 21 is replaced by .... and two ... are added to the C-terminus of the B-chain.

glycine
arginines

10

the 1st human inhaled insulin powder?

exubera

11

Condition caused by LOW INSULIN?

ketoacidosis

12

Condition caused by INSULIN OVERDOSE?

hypoglycemic coma

13

Normal glycosylation of HbA1c is...?

<7%

14

Class of oral hypoglycemics developed from an antibiotic having hypoglycemic properties?

sulfonylureas

15

What enhances hypoglycemic action of sulfonylureas?

NSAIDs

16

Two second generation sulfonylureas?

glyburide and glipizide

17

Class of oral hypoglycemics that are benzoic acid derivatives?

meglitinides

18

Class of oral hypoglycemics that does not effect insulin secretion but decreases hepatic glucose production?

biguanides

19

A biguanide that inhibits ANP kinase?

metformin

20

Class of oral hypoglycemics that bind to PPAR-gamma and increase insulin sensitivity?

thiazolidinediones

21

A thiazolidinedione?

pioglitazone

22

Class of oral hypoglycemics that reduces intestinal absorption of starch, disaccharides by inhibiting brush border alpha-glucosidase?

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

23

2 apha-glucosidase inhibitors?

acarbose and miglitol

24

2 main incretins in humans are?

GIP and GLP-1

25

What increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion and is a new target for antidiabetic drugs?

GLP-1

26

2 types of incretin drugs (hypoglycemic drugs for type 2 diabetes)

1. peptides
2. dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors

27

an incretin peptide that binds to GLP-1 receptors and improves glycemic control?

exenatide

28

the newest incretin peptides?

liraglutide and taspoglutide

29

an incretin DPP-4 inhibitor that inhibits inactivation of GLP-1?

sitagliptin

30

which incretin peptides are resistant to hydrolysis by DPP-4?

exenatide and liraglutide

31

What is an analogue of amylin?

pramlintide

32

an antihypertensive antidiuretic that has potent hyperglycemic actions?

diazoxide

33

chronic adrenocortical insufficiency?

Addison's disease

34

increased adrenocortical secretion?

Cushing's syndrome

35

synthetic ACTH used to test HPA axis?

cosyntropin

36

the main mineralocorticoid?

aldosterone

37

the main glucocorticoid?

hydrocortisone (cortisol)

38

glucocorticoids inhibit release of arachidonic acid and its metabolites through decreased expression of...?

phospholipase-A2

39

Short half life corticosteroid therapeutic agents?

cortisol/hydrocortisone, cortisone acetate

40

Intermediate half life corticosteroid therapeutic agents?

prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone

41

Long half life corticosteroid therapeutic agents?

dexamethasone, betamethasone, triamcinolone

42

Suppression of what is a major side effect of glucocorticoid therapy?

ACTH and TSH

43

Inhibitors of synthesis and action of adrenocorticol steroids?

aminoglutethimide and ketoconazole

44

Synthetic estrogens have ... which greatly decrease hepatic metabolism?

ethinyl groups

45

synthetic estrogens?

ethinyl estradiol and mestranol

46

Intramuscular injection of sulfate esters of estrone used to treat symptoms of menopause in women after hysterectomy?

Premarin

47

Drugs whose estrogenic activities are tissue selective?

SERMS (selective estrogen receptor modulators)

48

Example of SERMS?

tamoxifen

49

a true anitestrogen?

clomiphene

50

synthetic progestin component in birth control?

norethindrone

51

2 FDA approved morning after pills (postcoital contraception)?

Plan B and Preven

52

An approved antiprogestin for contragestation (abortion pill)?

mifepristone

53

Inhibitors of 5a-reductase inhibit production of...?

DHT

54

a non steroidal antiandrogen used in treatment of prostate cancer?

flutamide

55

an inhibitor of 5a-reductase that treats benign prostatic hyperplasia and also male pattern baldness?

finasteride

56

an aldosterone antagonist that also competes for testosterone receptor and treats hirsutism?

spironolactone

57

an antifungal that also inhibits cytochrome P-450 enzymes leading to inhibition of testosterone synthesis?

ketoconazole

58

major carrier of thyroid hormones?

thyroxine binding globulin

59

protein carriers of thyroid hormones?

thyroxine binding globulin (major carrier), transthyretin, albumin

60

3 inhibitors of TRH production?

somatostain, dopamine, glucocorticoids

61

preferred method for preventing iodine deficiency?

iodized salt

62

increased fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid oxidation, increased bile acid synthesis, decreased cholesterol, elevated glycolysis and gluconeogenesis

hyperthyroidism

63

decreased fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, increased cholesterol

hypothyroidism

64

myxedema?

hypothyroidism

65

cretinism?

hypothyroidism- infant

66

first synthetic thyroid hormone and treatment of hypothyroidism?

levothyroxine

67

Graves disease?

hyperthyroidism

68

toxic nodular goiter (carcinoma)?

hyperthyroidism

69

antithyroid drugs that inhibit iodine organification?

thioureylenes

70

2 thioureylenes?

propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole

71

inhibits conversion of T4 to T3?

PTU

72

antithyroid that crosses placenta and gets concentrated in fetal thyroid?

methimazole

73

the active form of Vit D?

calcitriol

74

plasma Ca is tightly regulated at...

2.5 mM

75

3 major sites of of action for blood calcium regulation?

bone, GI tract, kidney

76

PTH functions to ... plasma Ca

increase

77

what stop osteoclasts from breaking down bone?

bisphophonates

78

What allows both PTH and Calcitonin secreting cells to respond to extracellular calcium?

calcium sensing receptor

79

functions to decrease plasma Ca and is synthesized by parafollicular cells of thyroid?

calcitonin

80

functions to increase plasma Ca and is synthesized in skin and blood?

calcitriol (active form of Vit D)

81

Primary function of calcitriol?

increase Ca uptake from GI

82

at pharmacologic doses, calcitriol...

increase reabsorption from kidneys and bone resorption

83

Increased PTH causes

increased Ca reabsorption from kidney, increased bone resorption and increased synthesis of calcitriol

84

PTH mechanism of action works through increasing ...

cAMP which activates protein kinases

85

in the mechanism of action, calcitonin decreases the ... on osteoclasts

ruffled border surface area

86

very effective for short term treatment of hypercalcemia?

calcitonin

87

calcitriol induces synthesis of ... which allows the uptake and binding of more Ca?

calbindin

88

treatment of metabolic rickets?

calcitriol

89

bisphosphonates used in Pagets disease?

alendronate, etidronate, risedronate

90

bisphosphonate used for osteoporosis?

alendronate

91

true or false: bisphosphonates must be taken after an overnight fast with a full glass of water with no food for 30 min?

true

92

first generation bisphosphonate?

etidronate

93

serious complication of bisphosphonates therapy?

osteonecrosis of the jaw

94

surgical correction improves osteonecrosis lesions: T or F

F

95

osteonecrosis of jaw much more common with ... generation

3rd

96

excess fluoride causes...

fluorosis