Flashcards in Local Anesthetics Deck (29):
amide type drugs?
lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, ropivacaine
ester type drugs?
procaine, chloroprocaine, tetracaine, cocaine
amide and ester bonds?
topical use only?
benzocaine, dyclonine, dibucaine, pramoxine
EMLA, LET, phenylephrine-oxymetazoline
a reversal agent?
antidote to cardiotoxicity?
ideal qualities of local?
hydrophilic and lipophilic
order of sensitivity of nerve fibers?
1. B 2. C (SNS and Dorsal Root) and A delta 3. A gamma 4. A beta 5. A alpha
True or False: drug acts proximal to distal
true or false: recovery gradient runs distal to proximal
amide drugs have ... metabolism?
ester drugs have ... metabolism?
symptoms of minor toxicity?
ringing in ears, metallic taste, numbness of lips and tongue (if drug not applied in mouth)
Epi interaction possible w/...
B blockers; tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine), halothane, hypertension/heart block, cerebral vascular insufficiency
which metabolite of procaine might cause allergic reaction?
which preservatives might cause allergic rxn?
time of onset
prilocaine and to a lesser extent benzocaine cause...
antidote for methemoglobinemia?
IV methylene blue
more potent and cardiotoxic than lidocaine/mepivacaine; prolonged activity; useful for postop analgesia?
reduced cardiotoxicity; greater safety margin?
better penetration into bone; higher incidence of parethesias?
topical for mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, esophagus, urethra?
benzocaine and dyclonine
topical for skin, not mucosal membranes?
dibucaine and pramoxine