Autonomics lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autonomics lecture 1 Deck (50):
1

The autonomic nervous system is comprised of 2 neurons in a chain, what are they?

-Pre-ganglionic
-Post ganglionic

2

In you ganglion what are all the ACh receptors?

-Nicotinic

3

What type of receptor do you find in the sympathetic portion of sweat glands?

-ACh muscarinic

4

Pre ganglionic cell bodies in the sympathetic nervous system are ______?

-Thoracolumbar

5

Where do axons from the sympathetic nervous system extend to?

-pre and para vertebral ganglia (tend to be short)

6

Where do you find post ganglionic cell bodies?

-Para and pre vertebral ganglia

7

Where to post ganglionic axons extend to?

-Effector tissues/organs

8

Sympathetic pre-ganglionic also innervate adrenal medulla causing the adrenals cells to release what into the bloodstream?

-Norepinephrine and epinephrine

9

In parasympathetic nervous systems the pre-ganglionic cell bodies are what?

-Craniosacral

10

Where do pre-ganglionic axons extend to?

-Ganglia located near or in effector tissues/organs

11

What neurotransmitter is used by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic pre-ganglionic fibers?

-ACh

12

ACh acts through what receptors located on post- ganglionic fibers?

-Nicotinic receptors

13

T/F Drugs that alter ACh levels affect both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

True

14

Motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle also cat via what receptors?

-Nicotinic receptors

15

What do post ganglionic sympathetic use for neurotransmitters?

-DA
-NE
-EPI

16

What does DA activate?

-D1

17

Post ganglionic parasympathetic use what for a neurotransmitter?

-ACh

18

What does ACh act on in post ganglionic effector tissues and somatic muscles?

--Muscarinic in effector
-Nicotinic in somatic muscles

19

Where do you find M1 receptors?

-Stomach

20

What is the agonist for M1, M2, and M3 receptors?

-ACh
-Bethanechol
-Pilocarpine

21

What is the response from an M1 receptor?

-Increase acid secretion

22

What are the antagonists for M1, M2, and M3 receptors?

-Atropine
-scopalamine

23

What do M2 receptors act on?

-Sinoatrial node
-Atria
-AV node
-Centricle

24

What are the responses from M2 receptors?

-Decrease HR
-Decrease AP duration and contractility
-Decrease conduction velocity
-Decrease Contractility

25

What does M3 act on?

-GI smooth muscle
-Secretory glands

26

What are the responses for M3 receptors?

-Contract
-Increase secretions

27

What are the receptors for the parasympahetic nervous system?

-M (muscarinic)
-N (nicotinic)

28

What is the agonist for Nm and Nn receptors?

-ACh

29

What is the antagonist for Nm?

-Succinylcholine
-Tubocurarine

30

What is the antagonist for Nn?

-Mecamylamine
-Trimethaphan

31

What tissues do Nm receptors act on?

-Neuromuscluar junction

32

What tissues do Nn receptors act on?

-Autonomic ganglia
-Adrenal medulla
-CNS

33

What are the two classes of nueromuscular blockers?

-Depolarizing (Succinylcholine)
-Non-depolarizing (Tubocurare)

34

What does Tubocurare do?

-Competes with ACh at nicotinic receptors

35

What does succinylcholine do?

-Act as a nicotinic agonist and depolarizes/desensitizes the neuromuscular endplate making the neuron unresponsive to another ACh challenge

36

What does a block of AChE do?

-Affect both parasympathetic and sympathetic systems
-Affects tissues innervated by post-ganglionic fibers
-Affects signaling at the neuromuscular junction

37

If you have an increase in ACh what happens to you heart?

-Decrease HR

38

What is Sarin?

-A cholinesterase inhibitor (causes an increase in ACh)

39

What does an increase in ACh do to salivation?

-Increase

40

What does and increase in ACh do to eyes?

-Makes them watery
-blurred vision (dilated pupils)

41

What does an increase in ACh do to sweating?

-Increase sweating

42

What does an increase in ACh do to the GI?

-Give you diarrhea

43

What is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has a short duration of action and is used for glaucoma, and is an antidote for atropine?

-Physostigmine

44

What does physostigmine do?

-It is a short duration
-Used for glaucoma
-Antidote for atropine

45

What is Donepezil (aricept)?

-Cholinesterase inhibitors

46

What does Donepezil (aricept) to?

-Extended duration of actions
-Used to treat Alzheimer's

47

What does Botulinim toxin do?

-Prevents release of ACh
-Relax intraocular muscles
-Treats muscle dystonia (spasms)
-Remove wrinkles

48

What are cholinergic agents used in dentistry?

-Cevimelin (Evoxac)
-PIlocarpine (salagen)

49

What is Cevimeline used for?

-Treat xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome

50

What is Pilocarpine used for?

-Used to treat xerostomia after radiotherapy

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