Dr. Smith Epilepsy and Anti seizure drugs Flashcards Preview

Human disease and therapeutics 2020 > Dr. Smith Epilepsy and Anti seizure drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dr. Smith Epilepsy and Anti seizure drugs Deck (78):
1

What is a finite clinical manifestation of abnormal and excessive excitation of a population of cortical neurons known as?

-Seizure

2

What is a syndrome characterized by 2 or more recurrent seizures that are unprovoked by a systemic or neurologic insults known as?

-Epilepsy

3

What is a sequence of events that convert normal neuronal networks into a hyperexcitable networks known as?

-Epileptogenesis

4

What is a continuous seizure lasting more than 30 min or 2 or more seizures without full recovery of consciousness between them known as?

-Status Epilepticus

5

How many people will be diagnosed with epilepsy throughout a lifetime?

1 in 26

6

What characterizes epilepsy?

-2 or more (recurrent) seizures that are unprovoked

7

Any seizure lasting more than 5 minutes is treated clinically as what?

-Status Epilepticus

8

What is the most common causes of epilepsy in pediatric patients?

-Genetic susceptibility
-Perinatal and neonatal insults
-CNS infection/fever
-Trauma

9

What are the most common causes of epilepsy in adults?

-Trauma
-Neonatal DEFS
-CNS infection/fever

10

What are the most common causes of epilepsy in the elderly?

-Neoplasms
-Stroke
-Neurodegenerative disorders
-Trauma

11

What are common seizure precipitants?

-Metabolic and or electrolyte imbalance
-Stimulant intoxication
-Depressant withdrawal
-Sleep deprivation
-Reduction or inadequate ASD treatment
-Hormonal variations
-Stress
-Hypoxia
-High fever or CNS infection
-Concussion and or closed head injury

12

What are the two subsets of etiologies of epilepsy?

-Inherited
-Acquired

13

What are the three types of partial seizures?

-Simple partial
-Complex partial
-Secondarily generalized

14

What type of partial seizure is a single focus and the pt is fully aware and responsive?

-Simple partial

15

What type of partial seizure has a focal onset with local spread and the pt is initially aware and responsive but may develop some memory impairment if limbic system is involved?

-Complex

16

What are some common stimulant seizure precipitants?

-Cocaine
-Ephedrine
-Caffeine

17

What type of partial seizure is when the pt is initially aware and responsive but them loss of responsiveness and any memory as seizure then fully generalizes to involve the entire cortex, midbrain and thalamus?

-Secondarily generalized

18

What is the loss of awareness and lack of responsiveness, generalization from onset known as?

-Generalized Seizures

19

What are different types of generalized Seizures?

-Tonic-clonic (can be tonic or clonic as well)
-Absence
-Atonic

20

What does tonic mean?

-Stiffening

21

What does clonic mean?

-Jerking spasms

22

What is the phenotype of a simple partial seizure?

-Depends on areas of focal cortical involvement

23

How are the Foci of simple partial seizures confirmed?

-EEG

24

If the motor cortex is involved in a simple partial seizure what does it look like?

-Facial grimace
-Chewing

25

If the somatosensory cortex is involved in a simple partial seizure what does it look like?

-Numbness
-Tingling

26

If the occipital cortex is involved in a simple partial seizure what does that produce?

-Visual disturbances
-Blurred vision
-Hallucinations

27

How long do simple partial seizures typically last?

-Less than 90 seconds

28

What is a pt like during a simple partial seizure?

-Normal awareness, memory and consciousness throughout the seizure

29

How does a complex partial seizure spread?

-Locally or Bilaterally

30

What might become impaired during a complex partial seizure?

-Awareness
-Memory
-Consciousness

31

What is the duration of a complex partial seizure?

-Less than 120 seconds

32

If a complex partial seizure fully generalizes what is it known as?

-Secondarily generalized seizure

33

How can secondarily generalized seizures begin?

-Simple or complex partial seizures

34

How long does a secondarily generalized seizure last?

-Less than 240 seconds

35

What is the Postictal phase?

-Confusion, Somnolence, with or without transient focal deficit can last for minutes up to hours

36

Absence seizures probably represent abnormal interactions between what?

-Cortical and thalamic transmissions

37

What does a typical absence seizure look like?

-Impaired awareness and responsiveness for about 2 - 15 seconds

38

What are the three mechanisms of action for most commonly used ASDs?

-Enhancement of GABA mediated inhibition
-Reduction of excitatory transmission (glutamate)
-Modification of ionic conductance (Na, Ca 2+, K)

39

What is the purpose of the modification of ionic conductance

-Targeted at slowing neurotransmission in hopes of slowing or preventing seizure spread

40

How is the therapeutic index calculated?

-Median toxic dose/ median effective dose at any given time

41

What does the modulation of voltage dependent Na + or Ca 2+ channels lead to?

-Secondary inhibition of neurotransmitter release (particularly glutamate)

42

If you take a CYP450 inhibitor what can happen with the therapeutic index?

-You can start heading towards the toxic dose

43

When would you use Carbameaepine (tegretol)?

-Partial simple or complex seizures
-Generalized tonic-clonic seizures

44

Carbamazepine is a great drug for partial epilepsy but potential for what is high?

-Drug drug interaction

45

What is the Mechanism of action of Carbamazepine (Tegretol)?

-Blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels to inhibit repetitive firing in neurons

46

What is a rare side effect from carbamazepine?

-Stevens Johnson syndrome?

47

-What drug should you avoid in absence seizures?

-Carbamazepine

48

If you give Carbamazepine to someone with absence seizures what might happen?

-May aggravate spike wave seizures

49

What are the symptoms of Stevens johnson syndrome?

-Fever
-Sore throat
-Fatigue
-Painful lesions in the mucous membranes in the mouth and lips
-Spreads rapidly to face, trunk, arms, legs and feet

50

What pts are most at risk for getting stevens johnson syndrome?

-Pts on sodium channel blocker ASDs

51

What can raise Carbamazepine levels in plasma?

-Grapefruit juice by inhibiting its breakdown by CYP3A4

52

What does Carbamazepine do to CYP3A4 enzyme?

-Inhibits it leading to a decrease in Carbamazepine metabolism leading to increases in plasma levels of the drug

53

When do you use Ethosuximide (Zarontin)?

-Uncomplicated absence only

54

What drug do you use for uncomplicated absence only ?

-Ethosuximide (Zarontin)

55

What side effects does Ethosuximide have?

-May worsen partial and tonic clonic seizures
-Minor weight loss

56

T/F Ethosuximide has a short half life

-False
-Long half life

57

What is the mode of action of ethosuximide?

-Reduces T-type Ca2+ channel currents in thalamic pacemaker neurons

58

What is Phenytoin (Dilantin) used for?

-Partial simple and complex
-Generalized tonic clonic

59

What is a dentally related side effect of Phenytoin (Dilantin)?

-Gingival hyperplasia

60

What type of kinetics does Phenytoin have at high doses?

-Zero-order

61

What is Phenytoin contraindicated for?

-Absence seizures

62

What is the mode of action of phenytoin?

-Blockade of Na+ channel during repetitive firing

63

What must you do if a drug has zero order kinetics?

-Monitor plasma levels often and titrate dose as needed

64

What do you use Topiramate (Topamax) used for?

-Partial simple complex
-Generalized tonic-clonic
-Lenox-Gastaut syndrome

65

What are side effects of topiramate (topamax)?

-Word recall problems
-weight loss
-open angle glaucoma (not very common though)
-Renal calculi

66

What can topiramate (topamax) do to estrogen?

-Increase metabolism making oral contraceptives less effective (must use secondary means of birth control to avoid pregnancy)

67

Topiramate has multiple Modes of action and is broad spectrum, what are the MOA?

-blocks repetitive firing of voltage gated Na+
-Inhibits Ca2+ currents
-Inhibits AMPA/kainate receptors
-Potentiates GABA currents

68

What is Valproic Acid (Depakote) used for?

-Generalized absence
Generalized atypical absence
-Myoclonic
-Tonic clonic
-Partial simple and complex

69

What are common side effects of valproic acid (Depakote)?

-Weight gain
-Reye-like syndrome: hepatic failure

70

What is Valproic acid contraindicated in?

-pts with hepatic disease or significant hepatic dysfunction

71

What are increased risks of Valproic Acid?

-Teratogenicity
-Spinal bifida

72

What is the pregnancy risk for Valproic acid?

-Category D risk

73

What are three ASD drugs used for partial seizures?

-Carbamazepine
-Phenytoin
-Topiramate (if secondarily generalized)

74

What ASD drugs are used for generalized onset tonic clonic seizures?

-Valproate
-Topiramate

75

What ASD drugs are used for absence seizures?

-Ethosuximide (uncomplicated)
-Valproate (complicated)

76

What ASD drugs are used for Status epilepticus?

-Diazepam
-Phenytoin

77

What are the principles of ASD treatment?

-Match proper drug to seizure type
-Try monotherapy first
-monitor plasma levels of drugs
-Tailor therapy to individual patient

78

What are characteristics of ASDs?

-Good absorption
-Hepatic metabolism
-Side effects are common
-Drug interaction are common

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