CNS degenerative disorders Lecture #2 Flashcards Preview

Human disease and therapeutics 2020 > CNS degenerative disorders Lecture #2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS degenerative disorders Lecture #2 Deck (39):
1

What does Huntington's disease affect?

-The GABA pathway (it wipes it out)

2

What are the clinical manifestations of Huntington's disease?

-Early onset (around 30-40 yrs)

3

Huntington's disease is associated with abnormal moves, what are they?

-Chorea forms (sudden/jerky movements)
-Facial grimacing/oral facial movements

4

What drives the abnormal movements in Huntington's disease?

-You have too much Dopamine

5

If you get the huntington's gene will you get huntington's?

-Yes it is a genetic disorder

6

What is the progressive intellectual dysfunction associated with huntingtons disease?

-Decreased judgement
-Withdrawl from others
-Depression
-Schizophrenia
-Become compulsive

7

What is the incidence of huntingtons disease?

-.01%

8

What is the duration of diagnosis till death?

-5-10 yrs

9

What are the features of the pathophysiology of huntingtons disease?

-To much dopamine and cholinergic activity in the striatum
-To little GABA projections
-Lose cell bodies

10

The lateral ventricles in brain of a person with huntington's disease are enlarged, why is this the case?

-Because the loss of caudate neurons

11

What is the cause of huntington's disease?

-A gene known as huntington gene (deals with NMDA and AMPA receptors)

12

What happens if you activate NMDA receptors?

-Ionotropic Ca2+ release (causing problems with GABA if too much Ca2+)

13

How do you diagnose of huntingtons disease?

-Genetic screening for diagnosis

14

What is the pharmacological treatment for Huntington's disease?

-DA antagonists (antipsychotics) (D2 antagonists)
-Dopamine agonists for bradykinesia/rigidity
-DA depletion (reserpine) for choreiform movement
-SSRIs for depression
-Antipsychotics for hallucination/delusions

15

What is haloperidol?

-D2 antagonist

16

What is Olanzepine?

-atypical anti-psychotic

17

What can haloperidol lead to?

-Parkinsonism because of the lack of Dopamine

18

What is the most common degenerative brain disease?

-Alzheimer's disease (3-4 million)

19

What is the life expectancy for a person diagnosed with alzheimer's disease?

-5-20 yrs

20

What are the three categories of Alzheimer's disease?

-Early
-Moderate
-Late

21

How is early memory loss characterized?

-Short term memory

22

What do you see in early alzheimer's disease?

-Short term memory loss
-annoying
-Don't like change

23

What do you see in moderate alzheimer's disease?

-Decreased function
-Stop working
-Stop remembering the important things

24

What do you see in late alzheimer's disease?

-Decreased motor
-No judgement
-Immobile
-Stop eating

25

What is the epidemiology of alzheimer's disease?

-Old age
-Family history
-Inflammatory disease

26

What are three places in the brain the you can see alzheimer's disease?

-Hippocampus (memory)
-Cortex (function)
-Nucleus basalis

27

What neurons are severely damaged in alzheimers?

-The neurons from the nucleus basalis to the hippocampus (causes a deficiency in cholinergic activity)

28

What histologies are associated with alzheimers?

-Senile plaques
-Neurofibrillary tangles

29

What do senile plaques have in them?

-Beta amyloid (is abnormal form of amyloid and becomes sticky)

30

What protein is associated with the neurofibrillary tangles?

-Tau protein (microtubule protein)

31

What is the precursor protein for beta amyloid?

-APP

32

What happens to cholinergic activity when you have senile plaques?

-It decreases acetyl choline and muscarinic receptors

33

What types of drugs do you use for alzheimers?

-Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

34

What type of genes do you see in alzheimers patients?

-Apolipoproteins that turn into the APP that turn into the Beta amyloid
-Chromosome #21

35

When there is a protein aggregate in the brain what is usually associated with it?

-Inflammation

36

What cholinesterase inhibitor drugs are used for the treatment of Alzheimers?

-Donepezil (Aricept)
-Galantamine
-Rivastigmine

37

What is the only way you can have a definitive diagnosis of Alzheimers disease?

-Post mortem look at the brain

38

What are the functional consequences of alzheimers?

-Diminish capacity of the brain so you're not able to do multiple tasks concurrently
-Protein aggregates that cause inflammation

39

What are antipsychotics used for alzheimers?

-Olanzapine
-Quetiapine
-Risperidone
-Ziprasidone

Decks in Human disease and therapeutics 2020 Class (60):