Flashcards in CNS degenerative disorders Lecture #2 Deck (39):
What does Huntington's disease affect?
-The GABA pathway (it wipes it out)
What are the clinical manifestations of Huntington's disease?
-Early onset (around 30-40 yrs)
Huntington's disease is associated with abnormal moves, what are they?
-Chorea forms (sudden/jerky movements)
-Facial grimacing/oral facial movements
What drives the abnormal movements in Huntington's disease?
-You have too much Dopamine
If you get the huntington's gene will you get huntington's?
-Yes it is a genetic disorder
What is the progressive intellectual dysfunction associated with huntingtons disease?
-Withdrawl from others
What is the incidence of huntingtons disease?
What is the duration of diagnosis till death?
What are the features of the pathophysiology of huntingtons disease?
-To much dopamine and cholinergic activity in the striatum
-To little GABA projections
-Lose cell bodies
The lateral ventricles in brain of a person with huntington's disease are enlarged, why is this the case?
-Because the loss of caudate neurons
What is the cause of huntington's disease?
-A gene known as huntington gene (deals with NMDA and AMPA receptors)
What happens if you activate NMDA receptors?
-Ionotropic Ca2+ release (causing problems with GABA if too much Ca2+)
How do you diagnose of huntingtons disease?
-Genetic screening for diagnosis
What is the pharmacological treatment for Huntington's disease?
-DA antagonists (antipsychotics) (D2 antagonists)
-Dopamine agonists for bradykinesia/rigidity
-DA depletion (reserpine) for choreiform movement
-SSRIs for depression
-Antipsychotics for hallucination/delusions
What is haloperidol?
What is Olanzepine?
What can haloperidol lead to?
-Parkinsonism because of the lack of Dopamine
What is the most common degenerative brain disease?
-Alzheimer's disease (3-4 million)
What is the life expectancy for a person diagnosed with alzheimer's disease?
What are the three categories of Alzheimer's disease?
How is early memory loss characterized?
-Short term memory
What do you see in early alzheimer's disease?
-Short term memory loss
-Don't like change
What do you see in moderate alzheimer's disease?
-Stop remembering the important things
What do you see in late alzheimer's disease?
What is the epidemiology of alzheimer's disease?
What are three places in the brain the you can see alzheimer's disease?
What neurons are severely damaged in alzheimers?
-The neurons from the nucleus basalis to the hippocampus (causes a deficiency in cholinergic activity)
What histologies are associated with alzheimers?
What do senile plaques have in them?
-Beta amyloid (is abnormal form of amyloid and becomes sticky)
What protein is associated with the neurofibrillary tangles?
-Tau protein (microtubule protein)
What is the precursor protein for beta amyloid?
What happens to cholinergic activity when you have senile plaques?
-It decreases acetyl choline and muscarinic receptors
What types of drugs do you use for alzheimers?
What type of genes do you see in alzheimers patients?
-Apolipoproteins that turn into the APP that turn into the Beta amyloid
When there is a protein aggregate in the brain what is usually associated with it?
What cholinesterase inhibitor drugs are used for the treatment of Alzheimers?
What is the only way you can have a definitive diagnosis of Alzheimers disease?
-Post mortem look at the brain
What are the functional consequences of alzheimers?
-Diminish capacity of the brain so you're not able to do multiple tasks concurrently
-Protein aggregates that cause inflammation