Introduction to the nervous system Flashcards Preview

Human disease and therapeutics 2020 > Introduction to the nervous system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to the nervous system Deck (54):
1

What is the control center of the neuron?

-Cell body

2

What is released from the nerve terminals?

-Neurotransmitters

3

What are two types of terminals?

-Excitatory
-Inhibitory

4

What is an excitatory transmitters?

-

5

Is acetylcholine excitatory or inhibitory?

-It is actually both

6

Is glutamate excitatory or inhibitory?

-Excitatory

7

Is Dopamine excitatory or inhibitory?

-Inhibitory

8

Is GABA excitatory or inhibitory?

-Inhibitory

9

Is serotonin excitatory or inhibitory?

-Both

10

What is direct action from a neurotransmitter?

-Neurotransmitter binds to and opens ion channels
-Promotes rapid responses by altering membrane potential

11

Does GABA work through direct or indirect action?

-Direct action

12

What is indirect action of neurotransmitters?

-Neurotransmitter acts through intracellular second messengers, usually G protein pathways
-Broader, longer-lasting effects

13

What is a voltage gated membrane channel?

-opens and closes in response to voltage changes across the membrane

14

What is a ligand gated membrane channel?

-A hormone, drug or transmitter binds to the protein and the channel opens up

15

What type of membrane channels does lidocaine act on?

-Voltage gated by inhibiting Na+ channels

16

What are the two type of receptors found on membrane channels?

-Ionotropic
-Metabotropic

17

What type of action comes from an ionotropic receptor?

-An immediate and brief action

18

What type of receptor is not directly linked to ion channels?

-Metabotropic

19

What are the two types of metabotropic receptors?

-Membrane-delimited (occur entirely in plane of membrane)
-Diffusible second messengers

20

What is an autoreceptor?

-Receptors on an axon terminal through which the neuron's own neurotransmitter can influence the function of the terminal (usually inhibitory)

21

What is a heteroreceptor?

-Receptors on an axon terminal through which neurotransmitters from other neuronal types can influence the function of the terminal (usually shuts things down)

22

What type of receptor initiates biochemical processes that mediate more long-term effects and modify the responsiveness of the neuron?

-Metabotropic

23

What are three catecholamine neurotransmitters?

-Dopamine
-Norepinephrine
-Epinephrine

24

What disease can be caused from lack of dopamine?

-Parkinsons

25

What amino acid is needed to make dopamine?

-Tyrosine

26

What enzyme converts tyrosine once it enters the nerve?

-Tyrosine hydroxylase

27

What does tyrosine hydroxylase convert tyrosine into?

-DOPA (Dihydroxyphenylalaine)

28

What is DOPA converted to?

-Dopamine (DA)

29

What enzyme converts DOPA to DA?

-AADC (Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase)

30

What transporter puts DA into the vesicle?

-VMAT (Vesicular monoamine transmitter)

31

When Dopamine is released what can it do?

-It can bind to an autoreceptor
-Can go to a post-synaptic receptor
-Or Dopamine can be taken back up

32

What happens if Dopamine binds to an autroreceptor?

-Decrease the release of dopamine
-Decrease the activity of Tyrosine hydroxylase (inhibit production)

33

How is dopamine taken back up into the nerve terminal?

-Dopamine transporter

34

If dopamine is taken back up via the dopamine transporter what enzyme acts on it to break it down?

-Monoamine oxidase

35

T/F Amphetamine molecules can cross through the dopamine transporter

True

36

What is the first step in making norepinephrine?

-Tyrosine enters the nerve terminal

37

In making norepinephrine what converts tyrosine into DOPA?

-Tyrosine Hydroxylase

38

What converts DOPA to DA?

-AADC

39

What converts DA to norepinephrine?

-DBH (Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase)

40

How does DA enter the vesicle?

-VMAT

41

Where does DA get converted into Norepinephrine?

-Vesicle via DBH

42

When norepinephrine is released where can it go?

-Autoreceptor
-Post synaptic receptors
-Taken back up into the nerve terminal

43

What is the autoreceptor that norepinephrine goes to?

-Alpha 2

44

How is norepinephrine taken back up into the nerve terminal?

-Norepinephrine transporter

45

What breaks down norepinephrine down to a metabolite when it is taken back up into the nerve terminal?

-Monoamine oxidase

46

How is norepinephrine converted to epinephrine?

-PNMT (Phenylalanine-N-Methyl transferase)

47

What amino acid is used to make serotonin?

-Tryptophan

48

What enzyme converts tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan?

-Tryptophan hydroxylase

49

What enzyme converts 5-hydroxytryptophan to 5HT?

-AADC

50

What takes up 5-HT into a vesicle?

-VMAT

51

What is another name for serotonin?

-5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)

52

What can 5-HT do when it release from the nerve terminal?

-Go to an autoreceptor (5-HT)
-Bind to post-synaptic receptors
-Go back into the nerve

53

What takes 5-HT back into the nerve terminal?

-SERT

54

What enzyme metabolizes 5-HT when it gets back into the nerve terminal?

-Monoamine oxidase

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