Flashcards in Introduction to the nervous system Deck (54):
What is the control center of the neuron?
What is released from the nerve terminals?
What are two types of terminals?
What is an excitatory transmitters?
Is acetylcholine excitatory or inhibitory?
-It is actually both
Is glutamate excitatory or inhibitory?
Is Dopamine excitatory or inhibitory?
Is GABA excitatory or inhibitory?
Is serotonin excitatory or inhibitory?
What is direct action from a neurotransmitter?
-Neurotransmitter binds to and opens ion channels
-Promotes rapid responses by altering membrane potential
Does GABA work through direct or indirect action?
What is indirect action of neurotransmitters?
-Neurotransmitter acts through intracellular second messengers, usually G protein pathways
-Broader, longer-lasting effects
What is a voltage gated membrane channel?
-opens and closes in response to voltage changes across the membrane
What is a ligand gated membrane channel?
-A hormone, drug or transmitter binds to the protein and the channel opens up
What type of membrane channels does lidocaine act on?
-Voltage gated by inhibiting Na+ channels
What are the two type of receptors found on membrane channels?
What type of action comes from an ionotropic receptor?
-An immediate and brief action
What type of receptor is not directly linked to ion channels?
What are the two types of metabotropic receptors?
-Membrane-delimited (occur entirely in plane of membrane)
-Diffusible second messengers
What is an autoreceptor?
-Receptors on an axon terminal through which the neuron's own neurotransmitter can influence the function of the terminal (usually inhibitory)
What is a heteroreceptor?
-Receptors on an axon terminal through which neurotransmitters from other neuronal types can influence the function of the terminal (usually shuts things down)
What type of receptor initiates biochemical processes that mediate more long-term effects and modify the responsiveness of the neuron?
What are three catecholamine neurotransmitters?
What disease can be caused from lack of dopamine?
What amino acid is needed to make dopamine?
What enzyme converts tyrosine once it enters the nerve?
What does tyrosine hydroxylase convert tyrosine into?
What is DOPA converted to?
What enzyme converts DOPA to DA?
-AADC (Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase)
What transporter puts DA into the vesicle?
-VMAT (Vesicular monoamine transmitter)
When Dopamine is released what can it do?
-It can bind to an autoreceptor
-Can go to a post-synaptic receptor
-Or Dopamine can be taken back up
What happens if Dopamine binds to an autroreceptor?
-Decrease the release of dopamine
-Decrease the activity of Tyrosine hydroxylase (inhibit production)
How is dopamine taken back up into the nerve terminal?
If dopamine is taken back up via the dopamine transporter what enzyme acts on it to break it down?
T/F Amphetamine molecules can cross through the dopamine transporter
What is the first step in making norepinephrine?
-Tyrosine enters the nerve terminal
In making norepinephrine what converts tyrosine into DOPA?
What converts DOPA to DA?
What converts DA to norepinephrine?
-DBH (Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase)
How does DA enter the vesicle?
Where does DA get converted into Norepinephrine?
-Vesicle via DBH
When norepinephrine is released where can it go?
-Post synaptic receptors
-Taken back up into the nerve terminal
What is the autoreceptor that norepinephrine goes to?
How is norepinephrine taken back up into the nerve terminal?
What breaks down norepinephrine down to a metabolite when it is taken back up into the nerve terminal?
How is norepinephrine converted to epinephrine?
-PNMT (Phenylalanine-N-Methyl transferase)
What amino acid is used to make serotonin?
What enzyme converts tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan?
What enzyme converts 5-hydroxytryptophan to 5HT?
What takes up 5-HT into a vesicle?
What is another name for serotonin?
What can 5-HT do when it release from the nerve terminal?
-Go to an autoreceptor (5-HT)
-Bind to post-synaptic receptors
-Go back into the nerve
What takes 5-HT back into the nerve terminal?