Autonomics lecture 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autonomics lecture 2 Deck (77):
1

What are examples of cholinesterase inhibitors?

-Donepezil
-Bethanechol
-Pilocarpine
-Nicotine

2

What is the indication of bethanechol?

Treat urinary retention by increasing urine output

3

What is the indication of Pilocarpine?

-Treat glaucoma

4

What is angle-closure glaucoma caused by?

-Blocked drainage resulting in a sudden rise in intraocular pressure

5

What is the indication of succinylcholine?

-Used to relax muscles (surgery)

6

What is the indication of Mecamylamine?

-Ganglionic blocker
-used to treat hypertension

7

What is the indication of Carbachol (Miostat)?

-Used to treat glaucoma

8

What is the indication of Edrophonium?

-Reversible acteyl-cholinesterase inhibitor

9

What are some examples of antimuscarinic agents?

-Atropine
-Scopolamine

10

What can you use Atropine and scopolamine used for?

-Parkinson's disease
-Motion sickness
-COPD
-Urinary urgency

11

What are the effects of antimuscarinic agents such as atropine and scopolamine?

-Dry mouth
-Constipation
-Blurred vision
-Sedation
-Urinary retention

12

What does a cholinesterase inhibitor do?

inhibits the break down of ACh causing an increase in the amount and duration of ACh acting

13

What does pralidoxime do?

-Organophosphate poisoning

14

What type of drug is glycopyrrolate (Robinul)?

-Anticholinergic drug

15

What type of drug is Benztropine mesylate (Cogentin)?

-Anticholinergic drug

16

What type of drug is Propantheline bromide?

-Anticholinergic drug

17

What does propantheline bromide treat?

-Traveler's diarrhea

18

What does Trihyxphenidyl HCl treat?

-Anti-parkinsonism

19

What are agonists for alpha 1 receptors in the sympathetic nervous system?

-epinephrine greater than norepinephrine
-Phenylephrine

20

What tissues do you find alpha 1 sympathetic nervous system?

-Radial muscle of iris
-Genitourinary and G.I sphincters
-Vasculature

21

What is the response of an activated alpha 1 receptor on the radial muscle of iris?

-Contract

22

What is the response of an activated alpha 1 receptor on the genitorurinary and GI sphincters?

-Constrict

23

What is the response of an activated alpha 1 receptor on the vasculature?

-Constrict

24

What are the antagonists of alpha 1 receptors?

-Prazosin
-Terazosin

25

What are the agonists for the alpha 2 receptors?

-Epinephrine greater than norepinephrine
-Clonidine
-Guanfacine

26

What tissues do you find alpha 2 receptors in?

-Vasculature
-NE terminals
-Brainstem

27

What is the response of an activated alpha 2 receptor in the vasculature?

-Constrict

28

What is the response of an activated alpha 2 receptor in the NE terminals?

-Decrease NE release

29

What is the response of an activated alpha 2 receptor in the brainstem?

-Decrease NE release

30

What is an alpha 2 antagonist?

-Yohimbine

31

What are the agonist for Beta 1 receptors?

-Epinephrine = Norepinephrine
-Isoproterenol
-Dobutamine

32

What are the antagonist for beta 1 receptors?

-Propranolol
-atenolol
-metoprolol

33

What tissues do you find Beta 1 receptors on?

-SA node
-Atria
-AV node
-His-purkinje system
-Ventricles

34

What are the agonists for Beta 2 receptors?

-Epinephrine greater than Norepinephrine
-Isoproterenol
-albuterol
-terbutaline

35

What tissues do you find beta 2 receptors on?

-ciliary muscle
-vascular
-lungs
-urinary bladder
-uterine wall

36

What is a beta 2 antagonist?

-Propranolol

37

What are the responses of an activated Beta 1 receptor on the SA node?

-Increase heart rate

38

What are the responses of an activated Beta 1 receptor on the atria?

-Increase conduction velocity and contractility

39

What are the responses of an activated Beta 1 receptor on the AV node system?

-Increase automaticity and conduction velocity

40

What are the responses of an activated Beta 1 receptor on the His-Purkinje system?

-Increased automaticity and conduction velocity

41

What are the responses of an activated Beta 1 receptor on the Ventricles?

-Increased automaticity, conduction velocity and contractility

42

What are the responses of an activated beta 2 receptor on the ciliary muscle?

-Relaxation for far vision

43

What is the response of an activated Beta 2 receptor on the vascular?

-Relaxation, especially skeletal muscle (vasodilate)

44

What is the response of an activated Beta 2 receptor on the lungs?

-Relaxation

45

What is the response of an activated Beta 2 receptor on the urinary bladder?

-Relaxation

46

If you see olol at the end of a drug what type is it?

-Beta blocker

47

Where do you find Beta 3 receptors?

-Adipose tissue

48

In the eye what receptor do you find in the iris circular muscle?

-Muscarinic (parasympathetic)

49

In they eye what receptor do you find in the iris radial muscle?

-alpha 1 (Sympathetic)

50

In the heart what receptors do you find in the SA node?

-Beta 1, Beta 2, and Muscarinic

51

In the heart what receptors do you find in the ectopic pacemakers?

-Beta1, Beta 2

52

In blood vessels what receptors do you find in the skeletal muscle vessels?

-Beta 2

53

In blood vessels what receptors do you find in the Skin, splanchnic vessels?

-Alpha 1

54

What type of receptors do you find in the Bronchiolar smooth muscle?

-Beta 2 (symp)
-Muscarinic (para)

55

What type of salivary secretions do you get when you activate alpha 1 receptors?

-Viscous secretions

56

What type of salivary secretions do you get when you activate muscarinic receptors?

-Watery secretions

57

In the kidney DA is released from where?

-Sympathetic nerve terminals

58

At high doses DA also activates what receptors?

-Alpha and Beta

59

For a D1 receptor what is the agonist?

-DA
-Fenoldapam

60

What tissues do you find D1 receptors?

-Kidney
-Vasculature/heart
-CNS

61

What are the responses of an activated D1 receptor in the kidney?

-Increase renal blood flow, GFR and sodium excretion

62

What are the responses of an activated D1 receptor in the vasculature/heart?

-Vasodilation in renal, cerebral, cardiac and mesenteric vasculature

63

What is the agonist for a D2 receptor?

-DA

64

What tissues do you find D2 receptors?

-Post ganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals
-Chemoreceptor trigger zone
-CNS

65

What is the response of an activated D2 receptor in the post-ganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals?

-Decrease neurotransmitter release

66

What is the response of an activated D2 receptor in the chemoreceptor trigger zone?

-Nausea and vomiting

67

What is a D2 antagonist?

-Haloperidol

68

What does a + chronotropic effect mean?

-Increase HR

69

What type of effect is increasing strength of contraction?

-Ionotropic effect

70

What does epinephrine do to the respiratory system?

-Relaxes smooth muscle of airways, so dilates the bronchioles

71

What does epinephrine do to the eye?

-Dilates pupil (radial constricts) (alpha 1 receptor)

72

What receptor is responsible contracting bladder sphincter?

-Alpha 1

73

What is the most common type of glaucoma?

-open-angle glaucoma

74

What is the cause of open-angle glaucoma?

-An imbalance in the production and drainage of the clear fluid that fills the eyes anterior chamber

75

What are the side effects of epinephrine on the cardiac system?

-Increased HR
-Palpitations
-Arrhythmias
-Anginal pain

76

What are the vascular side effects of epinephrine?

-Increased TPR leading to pallor and increased BP

77

What are the respiratory side effects of epinephrine?

-Increased TRP can lead to pulmonary edema

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