Biological Interventions - Addiction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biological Interventions - Addiction Deck (13):
1

What are some forms of nicotine replacement therapy?

Gum, patches, tablets, spray etc

2

How do NRTs such as patches provide negative reinforcement?

Release nicotine through your waking hours
- background level of nicotine is thought to desensitise the nicotine receptors in the brain
= get less of a response from smoking - provides no 'high' just calms withdrawal symptoms

3

How can NRTs sometimes provide positive reinforcement?

Some such as sprays deliver effects similar to the mill 'high of a cigarette - instant hit of nicotine

4

What are some general advantages of NRT?

- Much healthier than smoking even if someone is on it for a long period of time
- All the change in the delivery system for NRT have increased their effectiveness

5

What are some general weaknesses of NRT?

- Can work really well with help but people often misuse it individually with no advice
= wrong level of nicotine, only use one product etc

6

What did Tang et al do?

Meta-analysis of 28 randomised trials of nicotine 2mg gum, 6 of nicotine 4mg + 6 of a nicotine patch
- participants were self-referred in 20 trials and invited in 20

7

What did Tang et al find?

Defined efficacy as = the difference in percentage of treated and control subjects who had stopped smoking in one year
- Efficacy was highly significant (P=0.001) for both gum and patch§

8

What is Bupropion?

An anti-depressant drug which increases dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain

9

How is Bupropion thought to help give up smoking?

Thought to reduce the amount of nicotine receptors in the brain making the person less likely to crave a cigarette

10

What did Jorenby et al do?

Treatment that consisted of nine weeks of bupropion or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy or a placebo

11

What did Jorenby et al find?

Abstinence rates at 12 months:
- 15% for placebo group
- 16% for patch group
- 30% for bupropion group (P=0,001)
- 35% for bupropion + patch group (P=0.001)
= combining therapies is the most effective

12

What is a weakness of Bupropion?

Has horrible side effects such as nightmares

13

What is Naltrexone?

Drug which seems to block the high an addict gets from their favourite mind-altering activity or chemical
- Gambling addicts experience an intense high while winning = would decrease their interest in the activity