Genes and Hormones - Gender Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Genes and Hormones - Gender Deck (16):

What does the Y chromosome trigger?

- The synthesis of H-Y antigen which prompts the gonads to produce hormones e.g. testosterone + male internal organs to develop
- Without these androgens development continues along female lines


What is complete androgen insensitivity syndrome?

Babies are XY but have no receptors for androgens, does not respond to male hormones
= appear to be females at birth - condition not normally diagnosed until puberty when menstruation fails to start


What is Turners Syndrome?

Born as XO, only one chromosome on 23rd pair


What are the characteristics of Turners syndrome?

- Physical differences (stature and neck) - look more masculine
- Under developed ovaries, lack of menstruation at puberty
- Poor spatial and mathematic abilities
- Poor social adjustment


What does CAIS suggest about hormones and genes?

Suggests that gender is caused by the hormonal changes triggered by genes, rather than the genes themselves which correlate with masculine and feminine behaviour


What did Young et al do?

Experimental study - increasing the amount of male hormones that female monkeys received in the uterus


What did Young et al find?

These monkeys took part in more rough at tumble play than other females


What does Young et al's study suggest?

- Supports CAIS claim
- This type of male play is universal and a result of genetic makeup. Suggests that hormones play a big part in the behaviours of different genders and that the genes provide these different hormones.


How does Young et al's study address PAS?

- This is a true experiment, no demand characteristics
- Also monkeys are sophisticated and have gender roles so similar to humans


Who was David Rehimer?

His testicals were removed at birth and he was raised as a girl. But was always masculine e.g liked boys toys = decided he wanted to be a man.


How does David Rehimer support genes and hormones?

- Shows the effects of testosterone on his brain in the womb made him males even though his testicals were removed
- His XY chromosomes had produced male hormones which had made him masculine. His nurture had no effect on his gender


How does David Rehimer address N/N?

Shows that nature is the biggest contributor to gender as his nurture had no effect on his gender and he always wanted to be male


What did Hampson do?

Tested women at different stages in their menstrual cycle (different levels of oestrogen)


What did Hampson find?

Performance was best on visual spatial task when levels of oestrogen were low


What does Hampson's study suggest?

That the 'typical' characteristics of females e.g. poor spatial abilities is due to hormones caused by genes. Therefore supports.


How does Hampson's study address SSNR?

If we start believing that oestrogen levels reduce skills such as maths then this limits opportunities for women