Flashcards in Psychological Therapies - OCD Deck (18):
What happens in ERP?
Clients repeatedly exposed to objects and situations that normally trigger their OCD
- Encouraged to avoid their normal 'safety rituals'
What techniques are often taught in ERP?
- Relaxation techniques to help cope with the high levels of anxiety
- Verbal persuasion
- Modelling techniques used to show clients how to behave
What is an example of an ERP instruction?
Told not to mop the floor for a week, then clean it for only 3 minutes, using an ordinary mop which must then be used for other chores
Why are family members often included in ERP? (Use if just on ERP)
As they can sometimes unwittingly collude with the sufferer - told not to do certain things to help the sufferer e.g. not take shoes off in the house
How effective is ERP?
More people respond than not (55-85%) + effects seem to be long lasting
- (use if just ERP): when ritualistic behaviour reduces in response to ERP, obsessional thoughts also seem to diminish
How appropriate is ERP?
- More appropriate than surgery because its worth a try as won't cause any permanent damage
- Takes a few weeks to show any effects so may not be appropriate for everyone e.g. those who are critical
What did Abramowitz find?
- Therapist-supervised exposure was more effective than self-controlled exposure
- Complete response prevention to exposure therapy was associated with a better outcome than partial or no response prevention
- Combination of in-vivo and imagination better than in-vivo
What does Abramowitz's study show?
ERP most effective when therapist has lots of supervision and rituals are completely prevented = higher anxiety levels
What did Whittal do? (use if just ERP)
Participants were randomly assigned to 12 consecutive weeks of CBT or ERP treatment
What did Whittal find? (use if just ERP)
There was no significant differences in scores between CBT and ERP at post treatment or a 3-month follow up
- Higher % of CBT ps obtained recovered status at post treatment + follow up (67%+76%)
- Compared to ERP (59%-58%) but not significant
What does Whittles study show (use if just ERP)
That the NHS doesn't need an independent therapy for OCD and could just use CBT which seems to be just as effective and appropriate
What are the aims of psychotherapy?
Aims to treat OCD by uncovering repressed memories and conflicts around toilet training and feelings of inferiority
What techniques are used in psychotherapy?
- Free association = clients says whatever comes into their head. Any resistance suggests client is getting close to a repressed idea
- Analysis of dreams = repressed memories appear in a disguised form in dreams
How effective is psychotherapy?
Not very successful at treating OCD
- Lengthy discussions may be counter productive by encouraging patients to think excessively
How appropriate is psychotherapy?
Tends to focus on early childhood but very little evidence linking theses experiences to OCD
- Most clients are distressed but does not focus on changing behaviour
- Not widely available + very expensive
What did Barker et al do?
14 patients with OCD had 52 sessions of psychotherapy
What did Barker et al find?
Only 15% of clients still had OCD after a follow up + all approved significantly across all other personality disorders