Flashcards in Cultural Influences - Gender Deck (12):
How does N/N relate to cultural influences?
If gender differences are the same across all cultures then this suggests nature is the cause. If they are different this suggests nurture.
How does SLT theory explain cultural influences?
Claims dominate, high status people in a culture show gender culture expression in one way which causes those who are less high status to look up to these individuals and model their behaviour
How does operant conditioning explain cultural influences?
Reward + punishment shapes gender behaviour across different cultures:
- If some individuals are promiscuous, violent towards partners etc they are showing lower status people what this is how to act = more likely to model the behaviour if they are rewarded e.g. extra publicity
How do rewards and punishments vary across cultures? (RWA)
E.g in the Middle East women can be arrested or killed for adultery and carrying activities deemed the 'norm' in the West such as driving = shapes men and women's behaviour
What did Mead do?
Wanted to show gender is a product of environment not biology:
- Studied 3 societies (Arapesh, Mundugamor and Tchambuli)
- Observed and recorded behaviour for comparison with the West
What did Mead find?
- Arapesh = showed personality traits and behaviours similar to those in the West BUT more interested in community than individual goals
- Mundgamor = Fierce and cannibalistic. Both men and women displayed 'masculine traits'
- Tchambuli = Had distinctive gender roles, but reverse of those in the West - women held social and economic power
How does Mead's study support cross cultural influences?
Shows nature over nurture as gender is different in every culture. If nature it should be the same across all genders
How does PAS relate to Mead's study?
Big researcher bias as tried very hard to prove nurture over nature. May have looked for tribes that showed different behaviour
What did Whiting and Whiting do?
Six field teams in Kenya, Okinawa, India, the Philippines, Mexico and the USA:
- Observed a no. of behaviours such as acts sociably, offers help and assaults (negatively)
What did Whiting and Whiting find?
Differences between gender in some cultures were more exaggerated than in others. US had the least differences.
- Most common behaviour = acts sociably
- Least common = touches and assaults
- Other behaviours occurred at different frequencies throughout the 6 cultures
- Children involved more with housework showed lower levels of gender differences than others
How does Whiting and Whiting's study support cross cultural influences?
Supports as shows differences in cultures BUT also suggests nature as all behaviours carried out in all cultures