Flashcards in Perceptual Development - Perception Deck (17):
Why are neonates used in perceptual development studies?
They have a never limited ability to see and make sense of the world around them so are used to see if perceptual abilities are innate or due to nurture
What did Gibson and Walk do?
Constructed a glass table with 2 halves. One at normal height and the other with a 4 foot drop
- 36 babies between 6-14 months were put on the shallow side and encouraged to walk across
What did Gibson and Walk find?
Most babies would not walk across the shallow side to the drop
What does Gibson and Walk's study show?
Concluded depth perception is an innate ability = supports Gibson
How does Gibson and Walk's study relate to PAS?
- Babies are not new borns. All had at least 6 months of experience - likely they learnt depth perception
- May have picked up on mum's expression which tells them if its safe or not to cross
How does Gibson and Walk's study relate to RWA?
Shown babies a big drop is safe = might put them in a dangerous situation
What was Gibson and Walk's repeated study?
Same study using new born lambs and goats
= did not walk on the deep side
What does Gibson and Walk's repeated study show?
Supports innate argument but can't generalise to humans as may be innate for animals who are mobile at birth to have depth perception
What did Campos et al do?
Compared heart rates of 2 month old babies placed on the 'shallow' side and the 'deep' side
What did Campos et al find?
Heart rates decreased slightly on the 'deep' side suggesting it caught the babies interest
What does Campos et al's study show?
Babies could distinguish between the 2 sides = innate (supports Gibson and Walk)
How does Campos study differ with 9 month old babies?
Show an increased heart rate to suggest anxiety = depth perception may be innate but danger is learnt through experience
What did Bower do?
Study looking at shape constancy in infants:
- 9 babies aged 40-60 days were conditioned to turn their head in response to a 30cm cube at a distance of 1 meter by rewarding them with a peek-a-boo game
What did Bower find?
When presented with the same hope further away vs a bigger shape further away which would present the same retinal image they looked more at the same shape
What did Bower's study show?
Babies had innate size constancy
How does N/N relate to Bower's study?
Both studies strongly suggest nature over nurture