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Flashcards in Perceptual Development - Perception Deck (17):

Why are neonates used in perceptual development studies?

They have a never limited ability to see and make sense of the world around them so are used to see if perceptual abilities are innate or due to nurture


What did Gibson and Walk do?

Constructed a glass table with 2 halves. One at normal height and the other with a 4 foot drop
- 36 babies between 6-14 months were put on the shallow side and encouraged to walk across


What did Gibson and Walk find?

Most babies would not walk across the shallow side to the drop


What does Gibson and Walk's study show?

Concluded depth perception is an innate ability = supports Gibson


How does Gibson and Walk's study relate to PAS?

- Babies are not new borns. All had at least 6 months of experience - likely they learnt depth perception
- May have picked up on mum's expression which tells them if its safe or not to cross


How does Gibson and Walk's study relate to RWA?

Shown babies a big drop is safe = might put them in a dangerous situation


What was Gibson and Walk's repeated study?

Same study using new born lambs and goats
= did not walk on the deep side


What does Gibson and Walk's repeated study show?

Supports innate argument but can't generalise to humans as may be innate for animals who are mobile at birth to have depth perception


What did Campos et al do?

Compared heart rates of 2 month old babies placed on the 'shallow' side and the 'deep' side


What did Campos et al find?

Heart rates decreased slightly on the 'deep' side suggesting it caught the babies interest


What does Campos et al's study show?

Babies could distinguish between the 2 sides = innate (supports Gibson and Walk)


How does Campos study differ with 9 month old babies?

Show an increased heart rate to suggest anxiety = depth perception may be innate but danger is learnt through experience


What did Bower do?

Study looking at shape constancy in infants:
- 9 babies aged 40-60 days were conditioned to turn their head in response to a 30cm cube at a distance of 1 meter by rewarding them with a peek-a-boo game


What did Bower find?

When presented with the same hope further away vs a bigger shape further away which would present the same retinal image they looked more at the same shape


What did Bower's study show?

Babies had innate size constancy


How does N/N relate to Bower's study?

Both studies strongly suggest nature over nurture


How does PAS relate to Bower's study?

- Head turning is an innate ability in babies so they may be doing it for other reasons e.g. being hungry
- Researcher subjectivity for what counts as a head turn BUT used a recorder fitted to pillow to record moments
- Not enough participants for it to be published = more like a pilot study