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Flashcards in Gender Dysphoria - Gender Deck (13):

What is the BSTc?

Part of the hypothalamus responsible for sexual behaviour - fully developed by age 5


How might gender dysphoria be caused by BSTc?

A male may have a female BSTc:
- Zhou found males who wanted to be females had a BSTc which was the same size as a heterosexual female.


What did Kruijver et al find?

Male to female transexuals had a similar no. of neurones to females


How does PAS relate to Kruijver's study?

Testing neurones = very objective. BUT very limited sample and not sure if these men have taken female hormones


What did Chung et al find to oppose Kruijver and Zhou?

BSTc develops in adulthood. Hormones levels which are present from birth remain dormant till adulthood and then become active = hormones cause desire to change sex (N/N - hormones caused by genes)


How does the family influence explanation explain gender dysphoria in terms of mother and father relationships?

For boys who want to be girls there may be an over close relationship with mum but distant dad: SLT = learn from modelling mother (N/N)


How can the inability to mourn a parent or an important attachment figure in early life lead to gender dysphoria?

Internalise qualities of individual to keep them alive = boys may want to become mother or caregiver who has died


How does SSNR relate to family influence?

Suggests its the fault of the family. Creates more difficulty for parents


What did Di Ceglie do?

Case study of James:
- Mainly looked after by grandmother, involved in many female activities
- When grandmother died he developed GD
- After therapy his conditioned disappeared


How does the case study of James support family influence?

Shows GD developed as a result of being unable to mourn an attachment figure


How does PAS and N/N relate to the case study of James?

PAS: Just because this happen one doesn't mean its the same for everyone
N/N: Shows the effect of nurture on James (SLT)


What did Reker find?

Looked at boys who had a history of cross dressing.
- 75% of the most 'disturbed' boys had no father figure compared to 21% in least 'disturbed'.
Supports: absence of father figure


How might parents actions cause GD?

Parents may have a strong desire for their child to be a certain sex = may reinforce gender inappropriate behaviour