Flashcards in Psychological Explanations - OCD Deck (12):
What are the 2 processes in Mowrer's model?
1) Fear of specific stimuli is acquired through classical conditioning (e.g. touching a door knob in a dirty environment = associated with the idea of contamination)
2) Fear is maintained by operant conditioning (learns washing hands relives feeling of fear) - negative reinforcement.
Hand washing = rewarding as takes anxiety away
Why does Mowrer believe 'substitute' escape rituals take place? (Use if just on behavioural)
Produce short-term anxiety relief but maintain long-term anxiety because the individual never learns that nothing bad happens in the absence of the rituals
What did Carr find? (Use if time)
Found ritualistic, compulsive behaviours were carried out when activity in an OCD suffers autonomic nervous system was high
- reduction in activity when carrying out rituals
How does Carr support Mowrer?
Supports idea with biological evidence - compulsive behaviours are reinforcing
What did Solomon and Wynne do?
Conditioned OCD behaviour into dogs
- 2 compartments with carrier - dog received an electric shock unless it jumped into other compartment with in 10 seconds
What did Solomon and Wynne find?
Dogs learnt to jump into the other compartment after several trials
- When electricity was turned off dogs continued to jump
What does Solomon and Wynne's study show?
Behaviour is reinforced because it reduced anxiety. BUT may not be representative of humans
What did Freud believed caused OCD
Believed it stems from fixation at anal stage (derive pleasure from bowl movements)
What happens in the anal stage?
Child has to accept the will of parents to be clean when it wants to be messy, pressure makes child feel guilty and dirty
= conflict between ID and ego
What causes anal-retentive personality?
When conflict in the anal stage is particularly strong
What did Rachman and Hodgson find?
- No relationship between 'anal' personality traits of perfectionism, neatness and OCD
- Clinical data showed some with OCD do have anal personality traits before onset of disorder
BUT many of those with OCD do not show these traits and many of those who have an 'anal retentive personality' do not develop OCD