Flashcards in Gender Schema Theory - Gender Deck (14):
What is a schema?
Packages of knowledge - develop these from birth and add to them through life
When do children begin to build a schema about their gender identity?
From age 3 - helps organise and interpret info about gender
What is the first gender schema to develop?
In-group and out-group - what toys + activities are suitable
What is the own-gender schema?
How boys and girls should behave
What are Martin's 3 stages?
- 2-4: Children learn to associate certain things with certain sexes
- 4-6: Link up to gender stereotyped info + begin to infer (make guesses) about behaviour
- 8: Make inferences about the opposite sex
What happens if new info is received that doesn't fit the schema?
The schema needs to be distorted to fit the new information
What did Martin et al do?
Showed 5-6 year olds pictures of different sexes doing inconsistent activities (e.g a girl sawing wood) and consistent activities (e.g. a boy playing with a train)
What did Martin et al find?
- A week late the schema consistent pictures were remembered better than the inconsistent.
- Inconsistent pictures were remembered by making them schema consistent (e.g changing the gender around)
What does Martin et al's study show?
Supports the theory as shows why children's gender role attitudes and beliefs hardly change as new info in distorted to fit existing schemas
How does Martin's study address PAS?
This study used photos of gender activities which is not very scientific - operationalises gender if different ways
What did Levy et al do?
Children undertook a 2 part interview that assessed the degree of gender schematisation
What did Levy et al find?
- Children's gender schematisation and other cognitive gender schema factors were strongly associated with children's accuracy in attributing gender-role stereotypes to both males and females
- Stage of gender consistency was not significantly correlated with any of children's gender-role stereotype attributions
What does Levy et al's study show?
- Further evidence for importance of gender schemas in early gender role development
- Shows gender schemas are more important than gender consistency