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Flashcards in Book10 Deck (200):
1

flotsam

drifting wreckage

2

jetsam

things thrown from a ship (to lighten the ship)

3

flounder

struggle and thrash about; proceed clumsily or falter (as in water, mud, snow, etc.); proceed in confusion

4

thrash

beat with a whip or flail; defeat utterly; talk about thoroughly in order to find the answer; move wildly or violently; Ex. The fishes thrashed about in the net.

5

flourish

grow well; prosper; make sweeping gestures; wave; brandish; Ex. The trees flourished in the sun. N: showy movement or gesture; embellishment or ornamentation (esp. in handwriting)

6

flout

reject; mock; show contempt for; scorn; Ex. flout the rules

7

curb

chain or strap used with a bit to restrain a horse; something that checks; V: check; restrain

8

fluctuate

waver; shift; rise and fall as if in waves; change or vary irregularly

9

fluency

smoothness of speech; ADJ. fluent

10

fluke

unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune; accidental stroke of good luck; ADJ. fluky

11

fluster

confuse; make nervous and confused; N.

12

fluted

having vertical parallel grooves (as in a pillar); V. flute: make long parallel inward curves in; N. flute: long rounded groove incised on the shaft of a column

13

groove

long narrow channel made in a surface to guide the movement of something; Ex. groove of the record

14

stammer

speak with involuntarily pauses or repetitions

15

flux

flowing; series of changes; fluctuation; Ex. in a state of flux

16

fodder

coarse food for cattle, horses, etc.; feed for livestock; CF. food

17

foible

small weakness of character; slight fault; CF. feeble

18

foil

contrast; one that by contrast enhances the distinctive characteristics of another

19

foil

defeat; frustrate; prevent from being successful; thwart; CF. fail

20

foist

insert improperly; impose upon another by coercion; palm off; pass off as genuine or worthy; CF. fist

21

palm

conceal in the palm of the hand; palm off: pass off; Ex. palm off some bad oranges onto the lady/the painting as a real Renoir

22

pass_off

present falsely; represent falsely to be

23

foliage

masses of leaves; CF. defoliate

24

foment

stir up; incite; instigate; promote the growth of (something evil or unpleasant)

25

foolhardy

rash; reckless; foolishly daring

26

foppish

vain about dress and appearance; N. fop: man who takes too much interest in his clothes and appearance

27

foray

raid; sudden raid or military advance; V.

28

forbearance

patience; forgiveness; V. forbear: refrain from (in a generous and forgiving way); be patient; Ex. forbear to send him to prison

29

ford

place where a river can be crossed on foot; V.

30

forebears(forbears)

ancestors

31

foreboding

premonition of evil; feeling of coming evil; V. forebode: be a warning of (something unpleasant)

32

forensic

suitable to debate or courts of law; of or used in legal proceedings and the tracking of criminals; Ex. forensic science/medicine

33

forum

public square of an ancient Roman city; public place for open discussion; court of law

34

foreshadow

give an indication beforehand; be a sign of (what is coming); portend; prefigure

35

prefigure

be a sign of; foreshadow

36

forerunner

predecessor; one that comes before and indicates the approach of another

37

foresight

ability to foresee future happenings; prudence in providing for the future

38

forestall

prevent by taking action in advance

39

nuptial

of marriage or the wedding ceremony; N; nuptials; wedding ceremony

40

forfeit

something surrendered as punishment for a crime or breach of contract; V: lose as a forfeit; N. forfeiture

41

forge

counterfeit; reproduce fraudulently; form by heating in a forge and hammering into shape; move with a sudden increase of speed or power; Ex. forged ahead in the last two years; N: furnace where metals are heated

42

forgo(forego)

give up; do without

43

forlorn

sad and lonely; wretched; desolate

44

formality

ceremonious quality; ceremonious adherence to rules; something done just for form's sake; Ex. mere formality

45

formidable

menacing; arousing fear; threatening; difficult to defeat; Ex. formidable foe/question

46

menace

threat; V: threaten

47

forsake

desert; abandon; renounce

48

forswear

renounce under oath; abandon; make a solemn promise to give up; CF. abjure

49

forte

strong point or special talent in a person's character

50

forthright

straightforward; direct; frank

51

forthcoming

happening in the near future; ready; willing to help; Ex. No answer was forthcoming.

52

fortitude

bravery; courage; strength of mind

53

fortuitous

accidental; by chance; N. fortuity

54

foster

rear; bring up (for a certain period only); encourage; promote the development of (feelings or ideas); Ex. help foster friendly relations; ADJ: giving parental care although not related by blood; Ex. foster parents

55

founder

fail completely; sink; CF. flounder

56

founder

person who establishes (an organization or business)

57

fracas

brawl(noisy quarrel or fight) in which a number of people take part; melee

58

fractious

unruly; peevish; cranky; bad-tempered; Ex. fractious horse

59

frail

weak; N. frailty

60

franchise

right or privilege granted by authority; right to vote; license to sell a product in a particular territory

61

frantic

wild; distraught as from fear or worry; Ex. frantic with fear

62

fraudulent

cheating; deceitful; Ex. fraudulent means; N. fraud: deception; swindle

63

fraught

filled (with something unpleasant); full; Ex. fraught with danger and difficulties; CF. freight

64

fray

brawl; fight; V: wear away or unravel by rubbing; have loose threads developing; cause to become worn out (a person's temper or nerves); CF. rub

65

frenetic(phrenetic)

frenzied; frantic

66

frenzied

madly excited; N. frenzy: violent wild excitement

67

fresco

painting on wet plaster (usually fresh)

68

paste

smooth viscous mixture as of flour(powder made by crushing grain) and water (used as an adhesive); V: cause to adhere by applying paste

69

pastry

paste of flour and water (eaten when baked)

70

plaster

paste that hardens to a smooth solid and is used for coating walls; V.

71

fret

be annoyed or vexed; Ex. fret over your poor grades; N: irritation of mind; ADJ. fretful

72

friction

clash or conflict in opinion; rubbing against

73

frieze

ornamental horizontal band on a wall

74

frigid

intensely cold; cold in manner; Ex. frigid zone

75

fritter

waste (time or money on unimportant things)

76

frivolous

lacking in seriousness; flippant; self-indulgently carefree; unworthy of serious attention; relatively unimportant; trivial

77

self-indulgence

excessive indulgence of one's own desire

78

carefree

free from worries; having no problems

79

frolicsome

prankish; gay; playful; merry; frisky

80

frolic

play and jump about happily; frisk; Ex. frolicking young lambs

81

frond

fern leaf; palm or banana leaf

82

litter

waste material thrown away (as bits of paper scattered untidily); V: cover untidily with scattered litter

83

fructify

bear fruit; produce fruit

84

frugality

thrift; economy; ADJ. frugal: practicing economy; costing little; inexpensive

85

fruition

bearing of fruit; fulfillment; realization; Ex. come to/be brought to fruition

86

frustrate

thwart; defeat; prevent from accomplishing a purpose

87

fugitive

fleeting or transitory; lasting only a short time; roving(wandering); running away or fleeing as from the law; N: one who flees; Ex. fugitives at large

88

fulcrum

support on which a lever rests or pivots

89

fulminate

thunder; explode; issue a severe denunciation

90

fulsome

disgustingly excessive; offensively flattering; Ex. fulsome praise/expressions of admire

91

fumble

move the fingers and hands awkwardly (in search of something); mishandle or drop a ball that is in play; bungle; botch; spoil by mishandling; N.

92

functionary

official (who performs a particular function)

93

functional

made for practical use only (without decoration); functioning; Ex. functional modern furniture; CF. functionalism

94

fundamental

basic; primary; essential

95

funereal

sad; solemn; suitable for a funeral

96

furor

frenzy; great anger and excitement; CF. fury

97

furtive

stealthy; quiet and secret (trying to escape notice); sneaky; Ex. furtive glance

98

sneak

move, give, or take in a quiet, stealthy way; N: one who sneaks; ADJ. sneaky

99

underhand(underhanded)

done slyly and secretly (being dishonest)

100

sly

clever in deceiving; secretive; not telling one's intentions

101

fusillade

simultaneous firing or outburst (of missiles, questions, etc.)

102

fusion

union; coalition; V. fuse

103

futile

useless; hopeless; ineffectual

104

gadfly

animal-biting fly; irritating person

105

gaffe

social blunder

106

gainsay

deny

107

gait

manner of walking or running; speed

108

galaxy

large isolated system of stars, such as the Milky Way; collection of brilliant personalities

109

gale

windstorm; gust of wind; emotional outburst (laughters, tears); Ex. gale of laughter

110

gall

bitterness of feeling; nerve; effrontery; CF. gall bladder

111

gall

annoy; exasperate; chafe; N: skin sore caused by rubbing (as on the skin of a horse); exasperation

112

galleon

large three-masted sailing ship

113

galley

low ship with sails (rowed along by slaves)

114

clipper

sailing vessel built for great speed

115

pinnace

small boat

116

clip

cut off with shears; fasten; N: something clipped off (as a short extract from film); clasp or fastener

117

galvanize

stimulate or shock by an electric current; stimulate by shock; shock into action; stir up; coat with rust-resistant zinc by using electricity

118

galvanic

of the production of electricity by the action of an acid on a metal; having the effect of an electric shock; Ex. galvanic cell; galvanic effect; CF. Luigi Galvani

119

gambit

opening in chess in which a piece is sacrificed; action made to produce a future advantage

120

ploy

strategem to gain an advantage; tactic; Ex. management ploy

121

gambol

romp; skip about; leap about playfully; frolic; N.

122

romp

play or frolic boisterously; gambol; N.

123

zest

outer skin of an orange used for giving a special taste to food; spice; interest; flavor; spirited enjoyment; Ex. add a certain zest to the affair; Ex. zest for life

124

gamely

in a spirited manner; with courage; Ex. fight gamely against a superior boxer; ADJ. game

125

gamut

entire range

126

gape

open widely; open the mouth wide; stare wonderingly with the mouth open; CF. agape

127

garbled

mixed up; jumbled; distorted; V. garble: mix up or distort (a message) to such an extent as to make misleading or unintelligible

128

jumble

mix in a confused way

129

gargantuan

huge; enormous; gigantic; CF. the hero of Gargantua and Pantagruel

130

gargoyle

waterspout carved in grotesque figures on a building

131

garish

overbright in color; unpleasantly bright; gaudy

132

trim

make neat or tidy by clipping; reduce by removing what is unnecessary; ornament; decorate (round the edges); Ex. trim the cost; Ex. jacket trimmed with fur; N. ADJ: tidy; in good order

133

garner

gather; store up; amass

134

garnish

decorate; add a garnish to; decorate (food or drink) with small items such as lemon slices; N.

135

garrulous

loquacious; wordy; talkative; N. garrulity

136

gastronomy

art and science of preparing and serving good food; CF. gastronome

137

gauche

clumsy (in social behavior); coarse and uncouth

138

gaudy

flashy; showy

139

flashy

showy; gaudy; giving a momentary brilliance

140

gild

cover with a thin layer of gold

141

gaunt

lean and angular; thin and bony; emaciated; barren

142

gavel

hammerlike tool; mallet(wooden hammer) used by a presiding officer or an auctioneer; V.

143

bid

command; utter (a greeting); offer as a price; N: offer of a price; amount offered; earnest effort to gain something; Ex. bid for freedom

144

gawk

stare foolishly; look in open-mouthed awe

145

gazette

official periodical publication; newspaper

146

genealogy

record of descent; lineage; ancestry; study of ancestry

147

generality

vague statement; general statement which is not detailed; quality of being general; greater part; most; Ex. generality of people

148

generate

cause; produce; create

149

generic

characteristic of an entire class or species; of a genus

150

genus

division of animals or plants, below a family and above a species

151

genesis

beginning; origin

152

geniality

cheerfulness; kindliness; sympathy; ADJ. genial: cheerful and good-tempered

153

genre

particular variety of art or literature

154

genteel

well-bred; elegant; striving to convey an appearance of refinement; Ex. genteel poverty

155

gentility

those of gentle birth; high social class; refinement; quality of being genteel

156

breed

produce young; rear; bring up; produce (an undesirable condition); N: kind or sort of animal or plant

157

crossbreed

hybridize; N: hybrid; CF. interbreed; CF. inbreed

158

well-bred

of good upbringing; well-mannered and refined

159

gentry

people of standing(rank or position); people of good family or high social position; class of people just below nobility

160

gentle

kindly; soft; mild; of good family

161

genuflect

bend the knee as in worship

162

germane

pertinent; bearing upon(having connection with) the case at hand; appropriate

163

germinal

pertaining to a germ; creative; Ex. germinal idea

164

germ

earliest form of an organism; seed or bud; something that may develop into something larger or more important; microbe

165

germinate

cause to sprout; sprout

166

sprout

begin to grow; give off shoots or buds; N: new growth on a plant; shoot

167

shoot

new growth from a plant

168

gerontocracy

government ruled by old people

169

gerontology

study of the sociological phenomena associated with old age

170

geriatrics

medical treatment and care of old age

171

gerrymander

change voting district lines in order to favor a political party; N. CF. Elbridge Gerry + (sala)mander

172

gestate

evolve as in prenatal growth; N. gestation: period of development from conception until birth

173

natal

connected with birth; CF. prenatal; CF. postnatal

174

gesticulation

motion; gesture; V. gesticulate: make gestures (while speaking)

175

ghastly

horrible; terrifying; resembling ghosts; CF. aghast

176

gibberish

nonsense; nonsensical or unintelligible talk or writing; babbling

177

gibe

mock; make jeering remarks; N: jeering remarks

178

giddy

light-hearted; not serious; frivolous; dizzy; causing dizziness; Ex. giddy youth; Ex. giddy climb/height

179

gingerly

very carefully; ADJ.

180

girth

distance around something; circumference

181

gist

essence; main point; substance

182

glacial

like a glacier; of an ice age; extremely cold; Ex. glacial epoch; CF. iceberg

183

glaring

(of something bad) highly conspicuous; harshly bright; shining intensely and blindingly

184

glare

shine intensely and blindingly; stare fixedly and angrily; N.

185

glaze

cover with a thin and shiny surface; apply a glaze to; N: thin, smooth, shiny coating (as for pottery); Ex. unglazed pottery

186

glean

gather leavings; gather grain left behind by reapers; gather bit by bit (facts or information) often with difficulty

187

glib

fluent (with insincerity or superficiality); facile; slick

188

slick

make smooth or glossy; N: smooth surface; Ex. oil slick; ADJ: smooth; glossy; deftly executed; adroit; glib

189

sleek

smooth and shining (as from good health); V.

190

glimmer

shine erratically; twinkle; N: dim or unsteady light; faint indication; Ex. glimmer of hope

191

glitter

shine brightly with flashing points of light; Ex. glittering diamond ring; N: sparkling light; attractiveness; glamor; Ex. glitter of the sun on the waves

192

glamor

compelling charm; ADJ. glamorous

193

gloat

express evil satisfaction; look at or think about with evil satisfaction; view malevolently; Ex. The thief gloated over the stolen jewels.

194

gloss_over

explain away with the intention of deceiving or hiding faults

195

gloss

brief explanation note or translation of a difficult expression; V.

196

glossary

brief explanation of words used in the text

197

glossy

smooth and shining; N. gloss: shiny brightness on a surface; superficially attractive appearance; Ex. gloss of good manners

198

mat

not shiny; matte; having a dull finish; N: flat piece of material used as a floor covering; V.

199

finish

surface texture; completeness of execution

200

finished

properly made and complete; Ex. finished product/performance