Ch. 4 Diagnostic Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 4 Diagnostic Terms Deck (41):
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ankylosis

stiff joint condition

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arthritis

inflammation of the joints characterized by pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limitation of motion

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osteoarthritis (OA), degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease (DJD)

most common form of arthritis, especially affecting the weight-bearing joints (e.g., knee or hip), characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage

3

rheumatoid arthritis

most crippling form of arthritis; characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation, most often affecting joints and synovial membranes (especially in the hands and feet) and causing ankylosis and deformity

4

gouty arthritis

acute attacks of arthritis, usually in a single joint (especially the great toe), caused by hyperuricemia (an excessive level of uric acid in the blood)

5

bony necrosis, sequestrum

bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply, such as can occur after a fracture (sequestrum = something laid aside)

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bunion

swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by an inflammation of the bursa

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bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

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chondromalacia

softening of cartilage

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epiphysitis

inflammation of the epiphyseal regions of the long bone

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fracture (Fx)

broken or cracked bone

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closed fracture

broken bone with no open wound

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open fracture

compound fracture; broken bone with an open would

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simple fracture

nondisplaced fracture with one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair (e.g., hairline fracture, stress fracture or a crack)

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complex fracture

displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair

15

fracture line

the line of the break in a broken bone (e.g., oblique, spiral, or transverse)

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comminuted fracture

broken in many small pieces

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greenstick fracture

bending and incomplete break of a bone; most often seen in children

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herniated disk

protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root

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myeloma

bone marrow tumor

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myositis

inflammation of the muscle

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myoma

muscle tumor

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leiomyoma

smooth muscle tumor

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leiomyosarcoma

malignant smooth muscle tumor

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rhabdomyoma

skeletal muscle tumor

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rhabdomyosarcoma

malignant skeletal muscle tumor

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muscular dystrophy

a category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles; Duchenne type is more common

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osteoma

bone tumor

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osteosarcoma

type of malignant bone tumor

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osteomalacia

disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium andn vitamin D deficiency

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rickets

osteomalacia in children; causes bone deformity

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osteomyelitis

infection of bone and bone marrow, causing inflammation

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osteoporosis

condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become more brittle and to fracture more easily (porosis = passage)

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spinal curvatures

curvatures of the spine (backbone) or spinal column (vertebral column)

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kyphosis

abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humped-back condition)

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lordosis

abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)

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scoliosis

abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-shaped curve)

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spondylolisthesis

forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra (listhesis = slipping)

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sprain

injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture

39

subluxation

partial dislocation (luxation = dislocation)

40

tendinitis, tendonitis

inflammation of a tendon

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