Ch. 9 Anatomic Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 9 Anatomic Terms Deck (38):
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adrenal glands; suprarenal glands

located on the superior surface of each kidney; adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones, and adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine

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steroid hormones

hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex

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glucocorticoids

regulate carbohydrate metabolism and have anti-inflammatory effects; cortisol is the most significant glucocorticoid

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mineral corticosteroids

maintain salt/water balance

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androgens

influences the development of male sex characteristics

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catecholamines

hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response

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epinephrine, adrenaline

secreted in response to fear or physical injury

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norepinephrine

secreted in response to hypotension and physical stress

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ovaries

female sex organs that secret estrogen and progesterone

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estrogen

hormone responsible for development of female secondary sex characteristics

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progesterone

regulates uterine conditions during pregnancy

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islets of Langerhans of the pancreas

endocrine tissue within the pancreas that secretes insulin and glucagon

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insulin

hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas that regulates glucose metabolism (insulin = island)

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glucagon

hormone secreted by alpha cells of the pancreas that regulates carbohydrate metabolism by raising blood sugar

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parathyroid gland

two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck; secrete parathyroid hormone

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parathyroid hormone (PTH)

regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism

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pineal gland

located in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin and serotonin

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melatonin

exact function unknown; affects the onset of puberty

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serotonin

a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin

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pituitary gland; hypophysis

located at the base of the brain; a master gland that secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands; anterior pituitary secretes various gland-stimulating hormones; posterior pituitary secretes antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

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anterior pituitary; adenohypophysis

anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

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thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

stimulates the thyroid gland

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adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex

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follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

initiates the growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and production of sperm in males

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luteinizing hormone (LH)

causes ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum; causes the secretion of testosterone in the testes

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melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

affects skin pigmentation

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growth hormone (GH)

influences growth

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prolactin; lactogenic hormone

stimulates breast development and milk production during pregnancy

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posterior pituitary; neurohypophysis

posterior lobe of the pituitary

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antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules

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oxytocin

influences uterine contraction

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testes

secretes testosterone

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testosterone

affects masculination and reproduction

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thymus gland

located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart; secretes thymosin

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thymosin

regulates immune response

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thyroid gland

located in front of the neck; secretes triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin

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triiodothyronine (T3) & thyroxine (T4)

known as the thyroid hormones; regulate metabolism

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calcitonin

regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism

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