Ch. 5 Diagnositic Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 5 Diagnositic Terms Deck (29):
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acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

signs and symptoms that indicate an active process of the pathological events leading to myocardial infarction

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arrhythmia, disrhythmia

irregularity or loss of rhythm in a heartbeat

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bradycardia

slow heart rate (<60 bpm)

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fibrillation

chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart (atrial or ventricular)

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premature ventricular contraction (PVC)

ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node

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tachycardia

fast heart rate (>100 bpm)

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bacterial endocarditis

a bacterial infection that affects the endocardium or heart valves

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cardiac tamponade

general term for disease of the heart muscle

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congenital anomaly of the heart

malformations of the heart present at birth (congenital = born with, anomaly = irregularity)

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atrial septal defect (ASD)

an opening in the interatrial septum

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coarctation of the aorta

narrowing of the descending aorta, resulting in limited blood flow to the lower body

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patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta (patent = opening)

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ventricular septal defect (VSD)

an opening in the interventricular septum

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congestive heart failure (CHF); left ventricular failure

failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to the body, causing a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs and possible edema in the lower body

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cor pumonale; right ventricular failure

enlargement of the right ventricle, resulting from chronic disease of the lungs, which causes congestion of the pulmonary circulation to the lungs (cor = heart)

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coronary artery disease (CAD)

a condition affecting the arteries of the heart, reducing blood flow to the myocardium; most often caused by atherosclerosis

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hypertension (HTN)

persistently high blood pressure

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essential hypertension; primary hypertension

high blood pressure attributed to no single cause

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secondary hypertension

high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease

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mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in back flow of blood

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myocardial infarction (MI)

heart attack

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myocarditis

inflammation of the myocardium, most often due to bacterial infection

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pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium

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rheumatic heart disease

damage to the heart and valves due to rheumatic fever

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sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)

the abrupt cessation of cardiac output, most commonly as the result of ventricular fibrillation

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deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, most often in the femoral and illiac veins

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phlebitis

inflammation of a vein

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thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation

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varicose veins

abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves

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