Ch. 8 Diagnostic Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 8 Diagnostic Terms Deck (42):
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agnosia

loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information

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astereognosis

inability to judge the form of an object by touch

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atopognosis

inability to locate a sensation properly

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Alzheimer disease

disease of structural changes to the brain resulting in deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability and death

4

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; aka Lou Gehrig disease

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cerebral palsy (CP)

condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth

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cerebrovascular disease

disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain

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cerebral arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries in the brain

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cerebral atherosclerosis

condition of lipid buildup in the arteries of the brain

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cerebral aneurysm

dilation of a blood vessel in the brain (aneurysm = dilation or widening)

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cerebral thrombosis

blood clot in a blood vessel of the brain

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cerebral embolism

obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain transported through the circulation

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cerebrovascular accident (CVA); stroke

damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease, such as occlusion of a blood vessel by a thrombus or embolus (ischemic stroke) or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke)

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transient ischemic attack (TIA)

brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain; often precedes a stroke

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encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

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epilepsy

disorder of the CNS characterized by recurrent seizures

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tonic-clonic seizure

stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups (grand mal (big bad) seizure)

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absence seizure

seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvment; aka petit mal (little bad) seizure

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partial seizure

seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms

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glioma

tumor of the glial cells

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herniated disc

protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disc so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression of the nerve root

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herpes zoster

shingles

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Huntington chorea; Huntington disease

hereditary disease of the CNS characterized by bizzare, involuntary body movement and progressive dementia (choros = dance)

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hydrocephalus

abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of the brain

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meningioma

benign tumor of the meninges

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meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

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migraine headache

sudden periodic attacks of mostly unilateral headache, often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, or vomiting, lasting for hours or days; caused by dilation of arteries in the brain

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multiple sclerosis (MS)

disease of the CNS characterized by demyelination of nerve fibers with episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)

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myasthenia gravis

autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength; activity and strength resumes after a period of rest

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myelitis

inflammation of the spinal cord

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narcolepsy

sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep

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neural tube defects

congenital deformities of the brain and spinal cord caused by incomplete development of the neural tube

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anencephaly

defect in the closure of the cephalic portion of the neural tube, resulting in incomplete development of the brain and bones of the skull

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spina bifida

defect in the development of the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of the meninges and/or spinal cord; most common neural tube defect (spina = spine; bifida = split in two parts)

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Parkinson disease

condition of slowly progressive degeneration of the substantia nigra resulting in decreased dopamine production; characterized by tremors; rigidity of muscles and slow movement; usually occurs later in life

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plegia

paralysis

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hemiplegia

paralysis of one side of the body

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paraplegia

paralysis from the waist down

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quadriplegia

paralysis of all four limbs

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poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis (polio = gray)

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polyneuritis

inflammation involving two or more nerves

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sleep apnea

periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring

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