Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (103):
When did Mesoamerican tribes start using agriculture?
5000 B.C, sustained more people
Mayans were in central Mexico in
The Mayan math was more accurate than
Mayans dissipated after
The Indians of the pacific nw were
Fishermen and woodworkers
Expansion of Europe was caused by
New tech and age of discovery
Columbus was born in
Italy to a wool weaver
Wanted to sail west because of his
Experience on working on ships as a apprentice
Why did the Siberians drift south?
Pursuit of large sum animals
Recent studies show that prehistoric humans from Asia crossed the Atlantic Ocean
From SW Europe
How many languages were there?
Contrary to popular beliefs, NAs often
Engaged in warfare
The ancient Indians were able to domesticate the
Dog and the turkey
What were the Aztecs originally?
Nomadic people with a more organized culture
Aztecs were people of
What were Chinampas?
Stuffed a bunch of mud into one source so that they could expand.
Aztecs had a very powerful
Made alliances by
What was the god of sun/war?
Who was the creator/hero of the Aztecs?
Who was the god of rain and fertility?
Cocoa was turned into
An upperclass beverage
What were the flower wars?
Scrimmage with their allies to intimidate enemies
Aztec believed that a piece of the sun,
Made the heart beat
To control colonies the Spanish pit up
What did Martin Luther believe in?
That there was no need for a priest to achieve salvation.
The Adena Hopewell left behind
Enormous earthwork and hundreds of elaborate burial mounds shaped like animals
The Adena Hopewell were
The AH used intricate kinship network to
establish social and spiritual alliances
AH also had
Elaborate trade network
The Mississippian culture flourished between
900 and 1350
MC built substantial towns around
Central plazas and temples
MC also had a
Mc were also great in
Built regional centers in SW, like
Cahokia hosted 100s of people in
MC disperse see in
The Anasazi society lacked
A rigid class structure
The Anasazi dispersed after
Migrating Indians of the north threatened the survival of the Anasazi society
The Eastern woodlanders were distinguished by their language:
The Algonquain, the Iroquoian, and the Muskogean
Columbus was born in
Why did Columbus want to sail to the Indies?
By the prospect of gaining Asian riches.
Persuaded Ferdinand and Isabella to award
Him a tenth share of his riches
He naked the island off the Bahamas he first encountered
In Hispaniola, he was introduced to
The amount of gold jewelry and tobacco.
The news of Columbus's voyage spread quickly because of the
Columbus and his men would defy the order of
Treating the Indians friendly.
The Treaty of Tordesillas drew a line
Off the Cape Verde islands, which Spanish got the west (except Brazil) and Portugal got the east
In the second voyage, there were many
Catholic priests on board
Amerigo Vespucci is said to have said that
America was a new continent
Three foods see unknown to Europe:
Maize, potatoes, and beans
Europeans introduced which foods?
Rice, wheat, barley, oats, melons, and many others
The foods were more
Complementary than competetitve
The new foods in turn helped bring the
Surplus of people who colonized from the new world
What was the most powerful empire in the world during the 16th century?
Spain because of its colonies in Europe, America, Africa,mans trading posts in Asia
Benefits of the empire came into the expense of the
The Caribbean Sea served as
A funnel which Spanish power entered the Americas
Indians died because of
Well armed soldiers and germs
The often violent encounter between the Spaniards and Indians involved
Contrasting forms of technological development
Arrows and Tomohawks were seldom a match for
Guns cannons and smallpox
Greater speed in battle and introduce a psychological advantage
To prevent any men from deserting
Cortes burned all but one ship
The Aztecs were once a
Nomadic people who had wandered south from northern Mexico
Lake Tetzcoco is where they built
Aztec gods were aligned with
Natural forces (zesty, sea, water, find, and fire)
Why was the invasion necessary for Cortés?
Because gold was the only thing that could cure his disease (greed)
Montezuma was stoned to death because he was a traitor and the Aztecs
Attacked the Spaniards
Cortés troops included
Cubans and thousands of Indians eager to beat the Aztecs
Cortés killed off the Aztecs because he
Killed them by cutting access to water and letting smallpox to come through
What is an encomienda?
Favored officers became privileged landowners who controlled Indian villages.
Called upon to take care of the villages and support missionary priests. In turn, Indians provided labor
Population change in Indians in 1600s was
50 million to 4 million
The encomienda gave way to
Hacienda (a great farm or ranch) as this became a more important source of wealth
The Spanish regulated
Every detail of colonial administration
Unlike England or France,
Spain forget an intense national unity.
The influx of gold and silver from the new world financed
The growth of the Spanish army as well as causing inflation throughout Europe
Who made the earliest exploration known in Florida?
Juan Ponce de León
What did Hernando de Soto do?
He hiked from Florida's west coast to the Arkansas River, looting and destroying Indian villages
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado?
Inspired by rumors of gold, traveled from New Mexico to Kansas. Found nothing but has a better understanding of the land
The Spanish established Spanish provinces as
Defensive buffers, not commercial enterprises
French Protestants established
France's first colony on the coast of SC and FL
After ten years a mission would be
Secularized: its lands would be divided among the converted Indians, the mission chapel would become a church, and e inhabitants would be given Spanish citizenship
First center of mission activity was
Juan de Oñate did what?
Took possession of New Mexico, established Santa Fe, and set out expeditions for gold and silver products
In 1598 what did the pueblos do?
They revolted by lost. The survivors (male and over 25) had their foot cut out, to scare the Indians to behave. Children were forced to take care of a Franciscan mission
Spanish moves the capital to
Santa Fe in 1608
What did Popé do?
Led the second pueblo revolt in 1680 and destroyed all relics of Christianity. Took 14 years to reestablish New Mexico
Horses did what?
Made them travel faster, they were stronger, competed with bison for food
What did the central life center on?
The Catholic Church
Why was the reformation?
It was when Protestants challenged the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church. It started when Martin Luther put on a door of a church the 95 theses in protest against corrupt catholic officials
Luther argued that if you attained God's salvation
By receiving God's grace through the redemptive power of Christ and through a personal relationship with God
Luther was expelled from the church and as a result q
Religious conflicts erupted, until the price of a nation could determined the religion of hai subjects. Most converted to Lutherism
Who was Giovanni de Verrazano?
Sent by the French king to look for the passage to Asia. Went all the way to Maine. His second voyage, he died because of the inhabitants
Explored Gulf of St. Lawrence, and St. Lawrence River, went as far as Montreal, and established a short lived colony in Quebec
French then lost
Interest in Canada
Spain did not accept Dutch independence until
What was the Armada!
Armada was going to attack England (sent by Phillip II), but was defeated by England's smaller and more agile ships.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada?
Marked the beginning of England's naval supremacy and cleared the way for English colonization in America
Sir Humphrey Gilbert tried to colonize parts of Canada for England
But got logs and was never seen again
Sir Walter Raleigh
Discovered Roanoke Island, outer banks of NC.
John White sent
About one hundred colonists to the new land