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When did Mesoamerican tribes start using agriculture?

5000 B.C, sustained more people

1

Mayans were in central Mexico in

300-900

2

The Mayan math was more accurate than

European math

3

Mayans dissipated after

Huge drought

4

The Indians of the pacific nw were

Fishermen and woodworkers

5

Expansion of Europe was caused by

New tech and age of discovery

6

Columbus was born in

Italy to a wool weaver

7

Wanted to sail west because of his

Experience on working on ships as a apprentice

8

Why did the Siberians drift south?

Pursuit of large sum animals

9

Recent studies show that prehistoric humans from Asia crossed the Atlantic Ocean

From SW Europe

10

How many languages were there?

400

11

Contrary to popular beliefs, NAs often

Engaged in warfare

12

The ancient Indians were able to domesticate the

Dog and the turkey

13

What were the Aztecs originally?

Nomadic people with a more organized culture

14

Aztecs were people of

Aztlan, Mexican

15

What were Chinampas?

Stuffed a bunch of mud into one source so that they could expand.

16

Aztecs had a very powerful

Military

17

Made alliances by

Intimidating

18

What was the god of sun/war?

Hultzilopochtl

19

Who was the creator/hero of the Aztecs?

Quetzalcoatl

20

Who was the god of rain and fertility?

Tlaloc

21

Cocoa was turned into

An upperclass beverage

22

What were the flower wars?

Scrimmage with their allies to intimidate enemies

23

Aztec believed that a piece of the sun,

Made the heart beat

24

To control colonies the Spanish pit up

Missions

25

What did Martin Luther believe in?

That there was no need for a priest to achieve salvation.

26

The Adena Hopewell left behind

Enormous earthwork and hundreds of elaborate burial mounds shaped like animals

27

The Adena Hopewell were

Hunters

28

The AH used intricate kinship network to

establish social and spiritual alliances

29

AH also had

Elaborate trade network

30

The Mississippian culture flourished between

900 and 1350

31

MC built substantial towns around

Central plazas and temples

32

MC also had a

Specialized government

33

Mc were also great in

Agriculture

34

Built regional centers in SW, like

Cahokia

35

Cahokia hosted 100s of people in

3.000 acres

36

MC disperse see in

1400

37

Anasazi meant

Enemy's ancestors

38

The Anasazi society lacked

A rigid class structure

39

The Anasazi dispersed after

Migrating Indians of the north threatened the survival of the Anasazi society

40

The Eastern woodlanders were distinguished by their language:

The Algonquain, the Iroquoian, and the Muskogean

41

Columbus was born in

Genoa, Italy

42

Why did Columbus want to sail to the Indies?

By the prospect of gaining Asian riches.

43

Persuaded Ferdinand and Isabella to award

Him a tenth share of his riches

44

He naked the island off the Bahamas he first encountered

San Salvador

45

In Hispaniola, he was introduced to

The amount of gold jewelry and tobacco.

46

The news of Columbus's voyage spread quickly because of the

Printing press

47

Columbus and his men would defy the order of

Treating the Indians friendly.

48

The Treaty of Tordesillas drew a line

Off the Cape Verde islands, which Spanish got the west (except Brazil) and Portugal got the east

49

In the second voyage, there were many

Catholic priests on board

50

Amerigo Vespucci is said to have said that

America was a new continent

51

Three foods see unknown to Europe:

Maize, potatoes, and beans

52

Europeans introduced which foods?

Rice, wheat, barley, oats, melons, and many others

53

The foods were more

Complementary than competetitve

54

The new foods in turn helped bring the

Surplus of people who colonized from the new world

55

What was the most powerful empire in the world during the 16th century?

Spain because of its colonies in Europe, America, Africa,mans trading posts in Asia

56

Benefits of the empire came into the expense of the

Indians

57

The Caribbean Sea served as

A funnel which Spanish power entered the Americas

58

Indians died because of

Well armed soldiers and germs

59

The often violent encounter between the Spaniards and Indians involved

Contrasting forms of technological development

60

Arrows and Tomohawks were seldom a match for

Guns cannons and smallpox

61

Horses provided

Greater speed in battle and introduce a psychological advantage

62

To prevent any men from deserting

Cortes burned all but one ship

63

The Aztecs were once a

Nomadic people who had wandered south from northern Mexico

64

Lake Tetzcoco is where they built

Tenochtitlán

65

Aztec gods were aligned with

Natural forces (zesty, sea, water, find, and fire)

66

Why was the invasion necessary for Cortés?

Because gold was the only thing that could cure his disease (greed)

67

Montezuma was stoned to death because he was a traitor and the Aztecs

Attacked the Spaniards

68

Cortés troops included

Cubans and thousands of Indians eager to beat the Aztecs

69

Cortés killed off the Aztecs because he

Killed them by cutting access to water and letting smallpox to come through

70

What is an encomienda?

Favored officers became privileged landowners who controlled Indian villages.

71

Encomenderos?

Called upon to take care of the villages and support missionary priests. In turn, Indians provided labor

72

Population change in Indians in 1600s was

50 million to 4 million

73

The encomienda gave way to

Hacienda (a great farm or ranch) as this became a more important source of wealth

74

The Spanish regulated

Every detail of colonial administration

75

Unlike England or France,

Spain forget an intense national unity.

76

The influx of gold and silver from the new world financed

The growth of the Spanish army as well as causing inflation throughout Europe

77

Who made the earliest exploration known in Florida?

Juan Ponce de León

78

What did Hernando de Soto do?

He hiked from Florida's west coast to the Arkansas River, looting and destroying Indian villages

79

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado?

Inspired by rumors of gold, traveled from New Mexico to Kansas. Found nothing but has a better understanding of the land

80

The Spanish established Spanish provinces as

Defensive buffers, not commercial enterprises

81

French Protestants established

France's first colony on the coast of SC and FL

82

After ten years a mission would be

Secularized: its lands would be divided among the converted Indians, the mission chapel would become a church, and e inhabitants would be given Spanish citizenship

83

First center of mission activity was

New Mexico

84

Juan de Oñate did what?

Took possession of New Mexico, established Santa Fe, and set out expeditions for gold and silver products

85

In 1598 what did the pueblos do?

They revolted by lost. The survivors (male and over 25) had their foot cut out, to scare the Indians to behave. Children were forced to take care of a Franciscan mission

86

Spanish moves the capital to

Santa Fe in 1608

87

What did Popé do?

Led the second pueblo revolt in 1680 and destroyed all relics of Christianity. Took 14 years to reestablish New Mexico

88

Horses did what?

Made them travel faster, they were stronger, competed with bison for food

89

What did the central life center on?

The Catholic Church

90

Why was the reformation?

It was when Protestants challenged the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church. It started when Martin Luther put on a door of a church the 95 theses in protest against corrupt catholic officials

91

Luther argued that if you attained God's salvation

By receiving God's grace through the redemptive power of Christ and through a personal relationship with God

92

Luther was expelled from the church and as a result q

Religious conflicts erupted, until the price of a nation could determined the religion of hai subjects. Most converted to Lutherism

93

Who was Giovanni de Verrazano?

Sent by the French king to look for the passage to Asia. Went all the way to Maine. His second voyage, he died because of the inhabitants

94

Jacques Cartier?

Explored Gulf of St. Lawrence, and St. Lawrence River, went as far as Montreal, and established a short lived colony in Quebec

95

French then lost

Interest in Canada

96

Spain did not accept Dutch independence until

1648

97

What was the Armada!

Armada was going to attack England (sent by Phillip II), but was defeated by England's smaller and more agile ships.

98

Defeat of the Spanish Armada?

Marked the beginning of England's naval supremacy and cleared the way for English colonization in America

99

Sir Humphrey Gilbert tried to colonize parts of Canada for England

But got logs and was never seen again

100

Sir Walter Raleigh

Discovered Roanoke Island, outer banks of NC.

101

John White sent

About one hundred colonists to the new land

102

When White returned

The village was abandoned. Most likely to a horrible drought because it was extremely dry.