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The most important feature of Gilded Age Politics

Localism

1

Who was Mark Twain?

wrote the Gilded age about corrupt politicians.

2

Who was Charles Dudley Warner?

wrote the gilded age about corrupt politicians

3

Woodrow Wilson

said there were no leaders, principles or parties

4

Gilded Age?

post civil war 19th century. Local politics and small federal govt. It means that on the outside it looked good, but on the inside of the gilded age there was corruption and madness.

5

Rings?

small groups of powerful political insiders who controlled politics in a region

6

Bosses

the leader of the ring who mediated disputes, helped the needy and distributed patronage

7

Patronage?

giving jobs to the people who help your party get elected.

8

Factors of National Politics distinctive texture

1.Party Loyalty
2. Close division of parties - avoided controversial issues
3. Widespread political participation

9

Party Loyalty

often an emotional thing, spans generations and spans different ethnicities

10

Waved the bloody shirt

republicans reminding people the democrats caused the civil war & republicans saved the union

11

Republicans vs. Democrats - platforms, members, religions, economic differences, regions?

Republicans rule the northeast and Midwest with Protestants, British descendants, African Americans and Union Veterans with nativist policies. Democrats consist of jews, free-thinkers, Catholics, southern whites, immigrants, and people repelled by the “party of morality”

12

Carry Nation

lead the Women’s Christian Temperance Union. Attacked saloons with a hatchet

13

Temperance

a republican issue; they hated the immigrants and the crime and corruption that came with saloons.

14

1869-1913 Republican dominated whitehouse

Grant through Taft (minus 2
nonconsecutive terms for Cleveland). Usual split between Republican and Democrat.

15

Rest of national politics extremely even

16 republican, 14 democrat states, Swing states

16

No presidents between Lincoln and Roosevelt could be considered “strong”

No parties dominated Congress

17

John Sherman

John Sherman—said legislative branch should dominate executive (Ohio Senator)

18

James Blaine of Maine

received bribes from an Arkansas railroad after helping it receive a govt. grant

19

Spoils?

“spoils”—giving jobs to members of your party after you win

20

Patronage?

basically the same as the spoils system. This was more like giving jobs to the people that voted for you. Not giving them federal spots, but just industrial work.

21

George Washington Plunkitt

can’t keep an organization together without patronage

22

Struggle for honesty in politics

Hayes wants to bring honesty to pres.

23

Stalwarts

supported Grant, radical reconstruction and spoils system

24

Half Breeds

half-way supporting Grant and reforming spoils system

25

Merit system

govt. jobs awarded by written tests; already in Europe

26

Roscoe Conkling

leader of the Stalwarts

27

Economic issues

Railroad strike and silver coinage. Farmers wanted regulation of railroads for lower prices and also unlimited silver coinage so that they could pay off their debts in this lifetime.

28

Bland Allison Act

increase in silver coins; Hayes vetoes congress overrides

29

James Garfield

dark horse Republican nominee.

30

Chester Arthur

Republican Vice President; a stalwart

31

Winfield Scott Hancock

Union general and Confederate candidate

32

Result

Result—Garfield barely won but had large electoral college margin

33

Charles Guiteau

deranged stalwart who assassinated Garfield.

34

George H Pendeleton

created Civil Service reform act

35

Civil Service Reform Act

made a certain % of fed. Jobs merit based, with a three-member federal service commission. Finally a stop to the spoils system in New York

36

Campaign of 1884?

Blaine loses to Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine loses because of many scandals and corruption.

37

James Blaine

long time leader of half-breeds who wins nomination

38

Mulligan Letters

letters that made public Blaine’s corruption and alignment w/railroads. Never proved in court but were powerful tools

39

Goo-Goos

“good government” reform-minded republicans who refused to back Blaine after the Mulligan Letters

40

Mugwumps

Algonian word for “self-important chieftain.” They were elite republicans dedicated to public welfare and centered in large Northeast cities & universities. Opposed tariffs, railroad regulation and inflation

41

Tammany Hall

ring of corruption that Grover Cleveland fought

42

Blaine's campaign blunders

Blaine’s two campaign blunders—dining with financial bigwigs to gain monetary support and letting slide an anti-Catholic remark by a republican (Blain had always had Irish and Catholic support)

43

Cleveland and the Special Interests

democrat who fought corruption and was against federal favor to big business. Vetoed bill giving Texas farmers seeds.

44

Pacific Railroad vs. Illinois

Supreme Court ruled no state regulation of railroads

45

ICC?

Interstate Commerce Commission to federally regulate railroads supported by Cleveland. The powers proved weak in court because of vague wording

46

Tensions over the tariff

big business likes tariffs, Cleveland doesn’t

47

Election of 1888

Harrison wins bc business backed his pro-tariff policy

48

GOP

“Grand Old Party”, stressed Republican’s longevity

49

Benjamin Harrison

Benjamin Harrison—war veteran from Indiana that won pres. Did not have much experience in public office, but still was elected.

50

Dependent Pension Act

Dependent Pension Act—doubled amount of union war veterans receiving govt. pensions

51

Sherman Antitrust Act

Sherman Antitrust Act—an act to limit trusts. Was supposed to disable many of the monopolies such as Standard oil, but it ended up not hurting many of the companies. Only 18 lawsuits occurred and four of them were against labor unions.

52

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

allowed for a little coinage of silver. Did not end up working well.

53

McKinley Tariff Act

made tariffs higher than ever before

54

John Sherman

Inspired anti trust act

55

Greenback Party

Greenback Party—a party formed by farmers to try to get more money issued

56

Populists

Populists—an economic party of small farmers to help get more $ printed

57

Economic Conditions

crop prices plummet, farmers in increasing debts. Droughts and Blizzards contribute to this depression. Farmers blame it on Eastern bankers and railroad barons.

58

Railroads and food processors

considered prime villains because railroads charged high rates. Farmers blamed them because they were the ones dealing with the food they produced and not giving them their earn of money.

59

Effect on High Tariffs on farmers

US manufacturers could rise prices of goods that the farmers relied on

60

Farm debt

Farm debt—debt increased and so they overproduced and prices declined

61

Oliver H Kelly

sent by dept. of Agr. Who founded the National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry

62

The Nation Grange thing

spurred a social and educational response to farmers’ isolation. Tried to lower prices by railroads and warehouses

63

Granger Laws

ineffective but laid foundation for later laws.

64

Munn v Illinois

supreme court ruled the state had the right to regulate property that was clothed in a public interest.

65

Granger Movement

the movement to pass granger laws and lower prices of railroads and warehouses

66

How are members different from Grange members

they’re not as prosperous

67

Texas Farmers Alliance

black movement w/white leaders, focused on economic, not social, equality

68

Blizzard of 1887?

killed most of the cattle and hogs on the northern plains

69

People's Independent Party

started in Kansas after a drought

70

Populist Party

People’s (populist) Party—Kansas party that elected a governor, grew into a large part helping the poor against the greedy rich

71

Mary Elizabeth Lease

a great orator who championed more silver in the Populists Party. She said to try to acquire change through the polls, but if that didn't work, then with bayonets

72

The Alliance

The Alliance—a group in the South that forced democrats to nominate candidates pledged to their program

73

Thomas E Watson

Thomas E Watson—leader of the alliance who urged blacks to join the cause

74

Populist platform

unlimited coinage of silver, graduated income tax, federal regulation of railroads, no immigrants owning land w/out citizenship and 8-hour days

75

Grover Cleveland

Grover Cleveland—democratic candidate who won the election

76

James Weaver

Populist candidate for presidency

77

Depression of 1893?

The Depression of 1893—overextended railroads and banks started to fail, may unskilled laborers lost their jobs. Lots of foreclosing on farms

78

Reading Railroad

Reading Railroad—Railroad that failed to start the depression

79

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Sherman Silver Purchase act—repealed by Cleveland to return to gold standard

80

Solid South

“The Solid South”—South would always vote democrat

81

Grover Cleveland

Grover Cleveland—democrats think he’s a traitor for repealing silver act

82

Free Silver

“Free Silver”—unlimited coinage of silver, the Populist party’s way to power

83

William McKinley

William Mckinley—republican nominee who supported the Gold Standard

84

William Day

William Day—money will decide the election

85

William Jennings Bryant

William Jenning Bryan—gave the famous cross of gold speech and won the democratic nomination

86

Do nothing

“Do Nothing”— Cleveland did nothing to help farmers in the depression

87

Dark Horse

Dark Horse”—Bryant was not expected to win the nomination

88

“financial magnates”—

eastern business leaders who constricted the money supply to insure high interest rates for mortgages and loans

89

Senator John Palmer

Senator John Palmer—pro-Cleveland/pro-gold democrats left the convention and nominated him after Bryan won the democratic nomination

90

Thomas E Watson

Thomas E Watson—Populist party’s vice president nominee

91

Marcus Hanna

Marcus “Mark” Hana—Mckinley’s campaign manager who called Bryan a popocrat

92

Popocrat

“Popocrat”—a name for Bryan calling him a “communistic spirit” who would ruin the capitalist system and start a class war

93

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt—didn’t want Bryan to become president. Thought he unlimited coinage of silver was unrealistic.

94

Full Dinner Pail

Full Dinner Pail”—Mckinley and his group of touring speakers promised this for every working man

95

Jim Crow Laws

Jim Crow Laws—laws mandating separation of races in certain areas

96

Thomas D rice

Thomas D Rice—performed the Jump Jim Crow dance in blackface

97

Populism and African Americans

Populism and African Americans—white populists courted black voters, lead to whites taking over voting booths again

98

Poll Tax

Poll Tax—a tax needed to pay to vote, kept blacks from voting

99

Benjamin Tillman

Benjamin Tillman—white supremacist governor of SC who ousted the bourbons by eliminating the black vote

100

Mississippi Plan

Mississippi Plan—new constitution in Mississippi that limited black voting by a clause that only people in the state/district for 2/1years could vote (ousting black tenant farmers which moved a lot),unqualified for voting if convicted of crimes that black disproportionately committed, a tax to be paid to vote and literacy

101

Grandfather clause

grandfather clause—Louisiana made illiterates able to vote if your father or grandfather could vote on Jan. 1, 1867 (when blacks couldn’t vote)

102

George Washington Cable

George Washington Cable—said blacks rode first class on rail cars in SC

103

Areas of segregation

Areas of segregation—public place in the south. Usually hotels, schools, restaurants, and especially trains.

104

Civil Rights Act of 1875

Civil Rights Act of 1875—ruled unconstitutional because people and business can segregate, just not states

105

Plessy vs Ferguson

Plessy vs. Ferguson—separate but equal, blacks can’t ride on white rail cars

106

Homer Plessy

Homer Plessy—1/8 black and rode in whites-only section

107

John Marshall Harlan

John Marshall Harlan—Supreme court justice from Kentucky who voted against separate but equal

108

Benjamin Tillman

Benjamin Tillman—blacks must stay subordinate or be exterminated

109

Alfred Waddell

Alfred Waddell—colonel who lead anti-black riots and was made mayor

110

Cape Fear

Cape Fear—river where Waddell threatened to dump the black bodies

111

The Wilmington Insurrection

The Wilmington Insurrection—Waddell and other whites rioted, killed blacks and overthrew the govt. the blacks established. 1st time a lawfully elected govt. was overthrown in US.

112

James Plunkett

James Plunkett—walk a quiet life. Try not to get killed by the whites

113

African American Churches

African American Churches—a hub for black community life. Religious and non-religious activities like social gatherings and political rallies

114

Mary Terrel

Mary Terrell—first president of the NACW

115

NACW

NACW—National Association of Colored Women. Tried to get rights for blacks.

116

BTW

Booker T Washington—wanted to build a prospering economic community of blacks before worrying about social equality. Social equality could wait.

117

Web dubois

WEB Dubois—criticized Washington, wanted immediate social equality

118

Ceaseless agitation

ceaseless agitation—what blacks needed to gain political power