Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (119):
The most important feature of Gilded Age Politics
Who was Mark Twain?
wrote the Gilded age about corrupt politicians.
Who was Charles Dudley Warner?
wrote the gilded age about corrupt politicians
said there were no leaders, principles or parties
post civil war 19th century. Local politics and small federal govt. It means that on the outside it looked good, but on the inside of the gilded age there was corruption and madness.
small groups of powerful political insiders who controlled politics in a region
the leader of the ring who mediated disputes, helped the needy and distributed patronage
giving jobs to the people who help your party get elected.
Factors of National Politics distinctive texture
2. Close division of parties - avoided controversial issues
3. Widespread political participation
often an emotional thing, spans generations and spans different ethnicities
Waved the bloody shirt
republicans reminding people the democrats caused the civil war & republicans saved the union
Republicans vs. Democrats - platforms, members, religions, economic differences, regions?
Republicans rule the northeast and Midwest with Protestants, British descendants, African Americans and Union Veterans with nativist policies. Democrats consist of jews, free-thinkers, Catholics, southern whites, immigrants, and people repelled by the “party of morality”
lead the Women’s Christian Temperance Union. Attacked saloons with a hatchet
a republican issue; they hated the immigrants and the crime and corruption that came with saloons.
1869-1913 Republican dominated whitehouse
Grant through Taft (minus 2
nonconsecutive terms for Cleveland). Usual split between Republican and Democrat.
Rest of national politics extremely even
16 republican, 14 democrat states, Swing states
No presidents between Lincoln and Roosevelt could be considered “strong”
No parties dominated Congress
John Sherman—said legislative branch should dominate executive (Ohio Senator)
James Blaine of Maine
received bribes from an Arkansas railroad after helping it receive a govt. grant
“spoils”—giving jobs to members of your party after you win
basically the same as the spoils system. This was more like giving jobs to the people that voted for you. Not giving them federal spots, but just industrial work.
George Washington Plunkitt
can’t keep an organization together without patronage
Struggle for honesty in politics
Hayes wants to bring honesty to pres.
supported Grant, radical reconstruction and spoils system
half-way supporting Grant and reforming spoils system
govt. jobs awarded by written tests; already in Europe
leader of the Stalwarts
Railroad strike and silver coinage. Farmers wanted regulation of railroads for lower prices and also unlimited silver coinage so that they could pay off their debts in this lifetime.
Bland Allison Act
increase in silver coins; Hayes vetoes congress overrides
dark horse Republican nominee.
Republican Vice President; a stalwart
Winfield Scott Hancock
Union general and Confederate candidate
Result—Garfield barely won but had large electoral college margin
deranged stalwart who assassinated Garfield.
George H Pendeleton
created Civil Service reform act
Civil Service Reform Act
made a certain % of fed. Jobs merit based, with a three-member federal service commission. Finally a stop to the spoils system in New York
Campaign of 1884?
Blaine loses to Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine loses because of many scandals and corruption.
long time leader of half-breeds who wins nomination
letters that made public Blaine’s corruption and alignment w/railroads. Never proved in court but were powerful tools
“good government” reform-minded republicans who refused to back Blaine after the Mulligan Letters
Algonian word for “self-important chieftain.” They were elite republicans dedicated to public welfare and centered in large Northeast cities & universities. Opposed tariffs, railroad regulation and inflation
ring of corruption that Grover Cleveland fought
Blaine's campaign blunders
Blaine’s two campaign blunders—dining with financial bigwigs to gain monetary support and letting slide an anti-Catholic remark by a republican (Blain had always had Irish and Catholic support)
Cleveland and the Special Interests
democrat who fought corruption and was against federal favor to big business. Vetoed bill giving Texas farmers seeds.
Pacific Railroad vs. Illinois
Supreme Court ruled no state regulation of railroads
Interstate Commerce Commission to federally regulate railroads supported by Cleveland. The powers proved weak in court because of vague wording
Tensions over the tariff
big business likes tariffs, Cleveland doesn’t
Election of 1888
Harrison wins bc business backed his pro-tariff policy
“Grand Old Party”, stressed Republican’s longevity
Benjamin Harrison—war veteran from Indiana that won pres. Did not have much experience in public office, but still was elected.
Dependent Pension Act
Dependent Pension Act—doubled amount of union war veterans receiving govt. pensions
Sherman Antitrust Act
Sherman Antitrust Act—an act to limit trusts. Was supposed to disable many of the monopolies such as Standard oil, but it ended up not hurting many of the companies. Only 18 lawsuits occurred and four of them were against labor unions.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
allowed for a little coinage of silver. Did not end up working well.
McKinley Tariff Act
made tariffs higher than ever before
Inspired anti trust act
Greenback Party—a party formed by farmers to try to get more money issued
Populists—an economic party of small farmers to help get more $ printed
crop prices plummet, farmers in increasing debts. Droughts and Blizzards contribute to this depression. Farmers blame it on Eastern bankers and railroad barons.
Railroads and food processors
considered prime villains because railroads charged high rates. Farmers blamed them because they were the ones dealing with the food they produced and not giving them their earn of money.
Effect on High Tariffs on farmers
US manufacturers could rise prices of goods that the farmers relied on
Farm debt—debt increased and so they overproduced and prices declined
Oliver H Kelly
sent by dept. of Agr. Who founded the National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry
The Nation Grange thing
spurred a social and educational response to farmers’ isolation. Tried to lower prices by railroads and warehouses
ineffective but laid foundation for later laws.
Munn v Illinois
supreme court ruled the state had the right to regulate property that was clothed in a public interest.
the movement to pass granger laws and lower prices of railroads and warehouses
How are members different from Grange members
they’re not as prosperous
Texas Farmers Alliance
black movement w/white leaders, focused on economic, not social, equality
Blizzard of 1887?
killed most of the cattle and hogs on the northern plains
People's Independent Party
started in Kansas after a drought
People’s (populist) Party—Kansas party that elected a governor, grew into a large part helping the poor against the greedy rich
Mary Elizabeth Lease
a great orator who championed more silver in the Populists Party. She said to try to acquire change through the polls, but if that didn't work, then with bayonets
The Alliance—a group in the South that forced democrats to nominate candidates pledged to their program
Thomas E Watson
Thomas E Watson—leader of the alliance who urged blacks to join the cause
unlimited coinage of silver, graduated income tax, federal regulation of railroads, no immigrants owning land w/out citizenship and 8-hour days
Grover Cleveland—democratic candidate who won the election
Populist candidate for presidency
Depression of 1893?
The Depression of 1893—overextended railroads and banks started to fail, may unskilled laborers lost their jobs. Lots of foreclosing on farms
Reading Railroad—Railroad that failed to start the depression
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Sherman Silver Purchase act—repealed by Cleveland to return to gold standard
“The Solid South”—South would always vote democrat
Grover Cleveland—democrats think he’s a traitor for repealing silver act
“Free Silver”—unlimited coinage of silver, the Populist party’s way to power
William Mckinley—republican nominee who supported the Gold Standard
William Day—money will decide the election
William Jennings Bryant
William Jenning Bryan—gave the famous cross of gold speech and won the democratic nomination
“Do Nothing”— Cleveland did nothing to help farmers in the depression
Dark Horse”—Bryant was not expected to win the nomination
eastern business leaders who constricted the money supply to insure high interest rates for mortgages and loans
Senator John Palmer
Senator John Palmer—pro-Cleveland/pro-gold democrats left the convention and nominated him after Bryan won the democratic nomination
Thomas E Watson
Thomas E Watson—Populist party’s vice president nominee
Marcus “Mark” Hana—Mckinley’s campaign manager who called Bryan a popocrat
“Popocrat”—a name for Bryan calling him a “communistic spirit” who would ruin the capitalist system and start a class war
Theodore Roosevelt—didn’t want Bryan to become president. Thought he unlimited coinage of silver was unrealistic.
Full Dinner Pail
Full Dinner Pail”—Mckinley and his group of touring speakers promised this for every working man
Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws—laws mandating separation of races in certain areas
Thomas D rice
Thomas D Rice—performed the Jump Jim Crow dance in blackface
Populism and African Americans
Populism and African Americans—white populists courted black voters, lead to whites taking over voting booths again
Poll Tax—a tax needed to pay to vote, kept blacks from voting
Benjamin Tillman—white supremacist governor of SC who ousted the bourbons by eliminating the black vote
Mississippi Plan—new constitution in Mississippi that limited black voting by a clause that only people in the state/district for 2/1years could vote (ousting black tenant farmers which moved a lot),unqualified for voting if convicted of crimes that black disproportionately committed, a tax to be paid to vote and literacy
grandfather clause—Louisiana made illiterates able to vote if your father or grandfather could vote on Jan. 1, 1867 (when blacks couldn’t vote)
George Washington Cable
George Washington Cable—said blacks rode first class on rail cars in SC
Areas of segregation
Areas of segregation—public place in the south. Usually hotels, schools, restaurants, and especially trains.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Civil Rights Act of 1875—ruled unconstitutional because people and business can segregate, just not states
Plessy vs Ferguson
Plessy vs. Ferguson—separate but equal, blacks can’t ride on white rail cars
Homer Plessy—1/8 black and rode in whites-only section
John Marshall Harlan
John Marshall Harlan—Supreme court justice from Kentucky who voted against separate but equal
Benjamin Tillman—blacks must stay subordinate or be exterminated
Alfred Waddell—colonel who lead anti-black riots and was made mayor
Cape Fear—river where Waddell threatened to dump the black bodies
The Wilmington Insurrection
The Wilmington Insurrection—Waddell and other whites rioted, killed blacks and overthrew the govt. the blacks established. 1st time a lawfully elected govt. was overthrown in US.
James Plunkett—walk a quiet life. Try not to get killed by the whites
African American Churches
African American Churches—a hub for black community life. Religious and non-religious activities like social gatherings and political rallies
Mary Terrell—first president of the NACW
NACW—National Association of Colored Women. Tried to get rights for blacks.
Booker T Washington—wanted to build a prospering economic community of blacks before worrying about social equality. Social equality could wait.
WEB Dubois—criticized Washington, wanted immediate social equality