Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (68):
What were Conestogas?
Horse- drawn wagons
What was the Wilderness Road?
It was blazed by Daniel Boone, and made vehicle be able to cross Cumberland Gap into Kentucky
A road that went into Tennessee
What did the Philly Lancaster Turnpike cause?
A movement for graded and paved roads
First commercially successful steamboat was the
Clermont, sent by a Robert R. Livingston and Robert Fulton
By bringing two way traffic on the Mississippi,
Steamboats created a transcontinental market and an agricultural empire that became the nation's new breadbasket
The Erie Canal did what?
Drew eastward much of the Midwestern trade that earlier had been forced to make the long journey down the Ohio and Mississippi down to the Gulf of Mexico
Erie Cabal also further isolated
What cooled the canal fever?
Financial panic of 1837 and subsequent depression
The railroad gained supremacy because of its
Speed, carrying capacity, and reliability
In addition, railroads could work
Perhaps most important, railroads connected what in 18th century had been
A chaos of local markets into an interconnected national market
In addition, railroads provided
New western settlement and increase in farming
What prompted the clipper boom?
The lure of Chinese tea
Lacked ample cargo space and would give way to steamship
The national government bought stock in turnpike and canal companies, and after the success of the Erie Canal,
Extended land grants to several western states for the support of canal projects
Technological advances helped improve
Living condition; houses could be larger, better heated, and better illuminated
Charles Goodyear did what?
Patented a process for vulcanizing rubber, which made the product stronger and more elastic
Elias Howe patented his design of
The sewing machine, improved by Isaac Merritt Stringer
Samuel F. B. Morse invented the
Eli Whitney did what?
Invented the cotton gin
The commercial growing of cotton for world markets
Revitalized the emphasis on plantation slavery
From mid 1830's to 1860 cotton had become
Half of the country's exports
Income from the North's role in handling the cotton trade then provided
Surpluses for capital investment in new factories and businesses
National law of 1820, as a result of the panic of 1819
Reduced the price of federal land
What was preemption?
The right of squatters to purchase land at a minimum price
The progressive reduction of prices in land that didn't sell immediately
Preemption Act of 1830
Squatter could get 160 acres at a minimum price of $1.25 per acre
Graduation Act of 1854
Prices of unsold lands were to be lowered in stages over 30 years
Jethro Wood developed the
John Deere invited the
Cyrus Hall McCormick developed
New mechanical seeders that replaced sowing seed by hand
By reducing the number of farm workers, new agricultural technologies helped send
Displaced rural laborers to work in factories
As a result to cheap imported British cloth
A demand of a tariff was demanded
The efforts of the American mill owners to gain political assistance initiated a culture of industrial
Adam explained in his WEALTH OF NATIONS
Consumers pay higher prices for imported goods, but also played high prices on domestic goods because local producers take advantage. Tariffs end up insulating American industries from competition
Why did the North oppose the tariff?
Because it reduced shipping
The South opposed it because
It would provoke Britain and France to provoke tariffs on their crops
Tariff Bill of 1816
25 cent per yard duty on imported cloth
What was the cause of a large amount of single women in NE?
Men moving westward
What was the Lowell idea?
Provided a safe place to work for the girls
Lowell lost its innocence because of
when textile prices and mill wages dropped
Relations between workers and managers deteriorated, causing strikes
Cities are a great social achievement because
Because it allows the share of knowledge and mobilize capital. Allows it to foster innovation and wealth
What were forms of urban recreation?
Pervasive drinking and blood sports
Theaters were the most popular form of
Indoor entertainment. Women kept at home
What were blackface minstrel shows?
It was where whites dressed up as blacks and prevailed racial stereotypes
Greatest proportional influx of immigrants
Why did the Irish move to Maerican
Because of the Irish potato famine
Most of the Irish arrivals had
Been tenant farmers, but they had little taste for framework and little money
Relatively few immigrants went to the
South because of slavery
Alexander T. Stewart
Irish immigrant who became the owner of the nation's largest department store and accumulated vast amount of land in Manhattan
Why were the Irish oppressed ?
Because they were catholic
After becoming citizens the Irish formed
Powerful voting blocks
Why did they find a hero in Andrew Jackson?
They both despised aristocracy, represented the common man
Irish are important because they spread
Germans included a large number of
Professional people (doctors, lawyers, etc.)
What religion were Germans?
Catholic, Jewish, Protestant, agnostic, or atheist
Germans tended to settle in
Peddling flaked oatmeal in Ohio and apart of Quaker Oats
Founder of Levi's jeans
What was some fears with Germans and Irish?
Germans were forming political radicalism and the Irish were forming ethnic voting blocs
The Know Nothings demanded
The exclusion of immigrants and Catholics from public office and the extension of the period of citizenship from 5-21 years
Anti-Catholic movement subsided when
Slavey became the focal issue
Skilled workers in the US organized themselves by
Henry Day declared that
The most important social functions in modern life were the professional skills