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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (68):
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What were Conestogas?

Horse- drawn wagons

1

What was the Wilderness Road?

It was blazed by Daniel Boone, and made vehicle be able to cross Cumberland Gap into Kentucky

2

Walton Road?

A road that went into Tennessee

3

What did the Philly Lancaster Turnpike cause?

A movement for graded and paved roads

4

First commercially successful steamboat was the

Clermont, sent by a Robert R. Livingston and Robert Fulton

5

By bringing two way traffic on the Mississippi,

Steamboats created a transcontinental market and an agricultural empire that became the nation's new breadbasket

6

The Erie Canal did what?

Drew eastward much of the Midwestern trade that earlier had been forced to make the long journey down the Ohio and Mississippi down to the Gulf of Mexico

7

Erie Cabal also further isolated

Deep South

8

What cooled the canal fever?

Financial panic of 1837 and subsequent depression

9

The railroad gained supremacy because of its

Speed, carrying capacity, and reliability

10

In addition, railroads could work

Year round

11

Perhaps most important, railroads connected what in 18th century had been

A chaos of local markets into an interconnected national market

12

In addition, railroads provided

New western settlement and increase in farming

13

What prompted the clipper boom?

The lure of Chinese tea

14

However, clippers

Lacked ample cargo space and would give way to steamship

15

The national government bought stock in turnpike and canal companies, and after the success of the Erie Canal,

Extended land grants to several western states for the support of canal projects

16

Technological advances helped improve

Living condition; houses could be larger, better heated, and better illuminated

17

Charles Goodyear did what?

Patented a process for vulcanizing rubber, which made the product stronger and more elastic

18

Elias Howe patented his design of

The sewing machine, improved by Isaac Merritt Stringer

19

Samuel F. B. Morse invented the

Telegraph

20

Eli Whitney did what?

Invented the cotton gin

21

The commercial growing of cotton for world markets

Revitalized the emphasis on plantation slavery

22

From mid 1830's to 1860 cotton had become

Half of the country's exports

23

Income from the North's role in handling the cotton trade then provided

Surpluses for capital investment in new factories and businesses

24

National law of 1820, as a result of the panic of 1819

Reduced the price of federal land

25

What was preemption?

The right of squatters to purchase land at a minimum price

26

Graduation is

The progressive reduction of prices in land that didn't sell immediately

27

Preemption Act of 1830

Squatter could get 160 acres at a minimum price of $1.25 per acre

28

Graduation Act of 1854

Prices of unsold lands were to be lowered in stages over 30 years

29

Jethro Wood developed the

Iron plow

30

John Deere invited the

Steel plow

31

Cyrus Hall McCormick developed

New mechanical seeders that replaced sowing seed by hand

32

By reducing the number of farm workers, new agricultural technologies helped send

Displaced rural laborers to work in factories

33

As a result to cheap imported British cloth

A demand of a tariff was demanded

34

The efforts of the American mill owners to gain political assistance initiated a culture of industrial

Lobbying

35

Adam explained in his WEALTH OF NATIONS

Consumers pay higher prices for imported goods, but also played high prices on domestic goods because local producers take advantage. Tariffs end up insulating American industries from competition

36

Why did the North oppose the tariff?

Because it reduced shipping

37

The South opposed it because

It would provoke Britain and France to provoke tariffs on their crops

38

Tariff Bill of 1816

25 cent per yard duty on imported cloth

39

What was the cause of a large amount of single women in NE?

Men moving westward

40

What was the Lowell idea?

Provided a safe place to work for the girls

41

Lowell lost its innocence because of

Mushrooming growth

42

when textile prices and mill wages dropped

Relations between workers and managers deteriorated, causing strikes

43

Cities are a great social achievement because

Because it allows the share of knowledge and mobilize capital. Allows it to foster innovation and wealth

44

What were forms of urban recreation?

Pervasive drinking and blood sports

45

Theaters were the most popular form of

Indoor entertainment. Women kept at home

46

What were blackface minstrel shows?

It was where whites dressed up as blacks and prevailed racial stereotypes

47

1845-54

Greatest proportional influx of immigrants

48

Why did the Irish move to Maerican

Because of the Irish potato famine

49

Most of the Irish arrivals had

Been tenant farmers, but they had little taste for framework and little money

50

Relatively few immigrants went to the

South because of slavery

51

Alexander T. Stewart

Irish immigrant who became the owner of the nation's largest department store and accumulated vast amount of land in Manhattan

52

Why were the Irish oppressed ?

Because they were catholic

53

After becoming citizens the Irish formed

Powerful voting blocks

54

Why did they find a hero in Andrew Jackson?

They both despised aristocracy, represented the common man

55

Irish are important because they spread

Catholicism

56

Germans included a large number of

Professional people (doctors, lawyers, etc.)

57

What religion were Germans?

Catholic, Jewish, Protestant, agnostic, or atheist

58

Germans tended to settle in

Rural areas

59

Ferdinand Schumacher?

Peddling flaked oatmeal in Ohio and apart of Quaker Oats

60

Heinrich Steinweg

Instrument maker

61

Levi Strauss

Founder of Levi's jeans

62

What was some fears with Germans and Irish?

Germans were forming political radicalism and the Irish were forming ethnic voting blocs

63

The Know Nothings demanded

The exclusion of immigrants and Catholics from public office and the extension of the period of citizenship from 5-21 years

64

Anti-Catholic movement subsided when

Slavey became the focal issue

65

Skilled workers in the US organized themselves by

Individual trades

66

Henry Day declared that

The most important social functions in modern life were the professional skills

67

Church groups and civic leaders started

Private academies