Founding Brothers Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Founding Brothers Part 2 Deck (29):

Washington was considered a political paradox, the text referred to him as a “Republican King” what did this title mean?

This idea went against everything the Revolutionary generation fought for. There was a risk in being such a strong national leader, since it threatened to negate the independence of the Revlotuion. Therefore, in resigning the Presidencey, Washington was decalring his alllegiance to the republic. He was called this beause he possessed authority like a King and many people made him look like a King. But he was a dominant leader who focused on the enrgies of the national government. he embodied national authority more potently and more visibly than any collective Congress could possibly convey. But he mainly focused on the nation and unity.


What were the major themes of Washington's farewell?

To stay away from European foreign affairs, by staying neurtral in the wars that the Europeans were fighting. Also he told the American people to stay away from partisanship becaus he thought this would tear the country apart. He also pushed for national untiy.


Washington’s military strategy changed during the revolution. He realized victories weren’t the most important thing. What was more important?

More important than battles was the ground one maintained. Keeping the Continental Army intact despite its losses is what ran Briatin down. In order to survive the country needed more time rather than easy victories


Why did Washington not support a French invasion into Canda?

Washington did not support a French invasion into Canada becuase the French were Ameica's allies, but once they were ensconced in Canada it would be foolish to expect them to withdraw. for many reasons but he confide his deepest reason to Henry Laurens, the president of the Continental Congresss. He feared that the introduction of French troops into Canada, and putting them in possession of the capitol of that province, attached to them all ties of blood, habits, manners, religion, and former connexions of the government. Washinton thought if they let troops in then it would be foolish for them to withdraw. He did not want a permanent natonial ally


What was unusual about Washington’s travels (or lack thereof) compared to his peers?

He had never traveled or lived in Europe. His only foreign trip was to Barbados. His angle of vision for the new nation was very western.


Washington had a misguided belief about the future of waterways leading to the Potomac, what did Washington think? What does the author believe Washington “felt in his bones” ?

Washington thought that America's future lay to the West. He thought the Potomac waterways constituted a direct link to the river system of the interior. He knew in his bones that the energy of the American people must flow in that direction.


What was Jay's Treaty?

It was a 1795 treaty between the United States and the Great Britain that is credited with averting war, resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 (which ended the American Revolution), and facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792. It was also a repudiation of the Farnco- American alliance of 1778, which had been so instrumental in gaining French military assistance for the winning of the American Revoltuion.


Why was the treaty so controversial?

It favored English imports and guranteed payemnt on pre-revolutionary debts.


What was the fundamental rift between Jefferson and Washington?

Washintong's Presidency: The Repubulicans vs. the Federalists. Rules of political conduct were not yet established and Jefferson continued to control the Republican opposition from Monticello. His delusions concerning the Federalists were so well known.


Why was Washington prophetic for wanting to support Jay's treaty?

This was prophetic because he hoped by supporting Jay's treaty that favoring the nation of England would buy America the protction of the British fleet; this proved prophectic because as it happened wel into the 19th century in some form or another.


11. What did Washington want to include (establish) in his address but was eventually left out.

A project for a national university


Who were the three authors of the address?

Washington, Madison, and Hamiltion


What did Washington have to say to the Native American population at the end of this second term?

Washington told the Indians to that contesting the white population was basically sucicidal. The only realistic solution Washington offered was to accept the inevitable, and assimilate into the larger American nation.


What were the strengths and weaknesses of John Adams as a presidential candidate?

Adams many revolutionary credentials. American independence was his life work. He worked against the stamp act and served as an ambassador in Europe. He a lot of experience and he knew how to debate and win an argument. Some weaknesses were his anger and that he advocated for a monarchial executive branch of government. Adams was abrasive.


Who made up the incongruous pair?

Thomas Jefferson and John Adams


What was Adams' experience as VP?

Adam's experience fitted his viewpoint of the vice presidency position as "the most insignificant office that ever the Invention of Man contrived or his imagination conceived." His only duty was to serve as president pro tem the Senate, casting a vote to break a tie. His experience only worsened, as he was later not permitted to speak in debates and removed from the deliberations of the cabinet.


How did Adams respond the XYZ affair?

Adams responded to the XYZ affair by ordering the delegation to return home, but also witheld the official dispatches describing the scheme from Congress and the public.


What were the main duties of the Vice President? What change was made in the role due to John Adams?

The main duties of the Vice President were to remain available if the president was dead, ill, or removed from office, and to serve as president pro tem of the Senate, casting a vote only to break a tie. Because Adams often participated largely in debates, the members of Senate decided that he was unable to speak.


What were the two main criticisms of John Adams that were untrue?

That Washington opposed Adam’s foreign policy and that Adams wanted to scuttle the plans for moving the capital to the Potamic.


What happened if the presidential electoral ended in a tie?

It goes to the Senate


Why didn’t Jefferson partner with Adams even though he was Adams’ vice-president?

They disagreed on every matter and they were from different political parties. Because of the election system of the time the person with the second most votes became the vice-president, so basically there was not as a ticket running for office. Jefferson believed in a small government


Adams' biggest blunder?

Adam’s biggest blunder as president was to retain Washington’s advisors for his cabinet.


Joseph Ellis expresses that Adams is the classic example of what truism?

Adams is the classic example of the truism that inherited circumstances define the parameters within which presidental leadership takes shape, that history shapes presidents.


Describe Adams relationship with his cabinet. Who did he turn to for advice rather than his cabinet?

Adams virtually ignored his cabinet, mostly because they more more loyal to Alexander Hamilton. He instead turned to his wife Abigail for advice rather than his cabinet.


What were some of the measures that Jefferson took to discredit Adams? How did one of these measures backfire on Jefferson?

Jefferson often hired writers to make up propaganda in order to discredit Adams. Some of the fictional stories that the reporters wrote were that Adams was going to establish a monarch and that Adams was preparing war with France. Jefferson also hired John Callender to hellp critize Adams. This hiring backfired because Callender published an article about Jefferson's affair with his slave Sally Hemings.


Midnight judges!

That it was the only instance in which Jefferson found Adams’s decision to be personally unkind. In addition, the major offense was the appointment of John Marshall as chief justice, arguably Adams’ most enduring anti-Jeffersoinan legacy.


What were Jefferson’s misguided propositions about European affairs?

That England’s economy was collapsing, and that France was the wave of the future, that monarchy would be completely abolished and the overthrow would be peaceful and bloodless.


What does the correspondence between Adams and Jefferson reveal about their different views of government?

Adams and Jefferson disagreed on the executive branch. Jefferson thought that it should be less powerful to avoid a monarchy, but Adams did not shy away from toeing the line, as he even suggested calling Washington "your majesty" on one occasion. Jefferson favored the many and hated Federalist


4. How did the dialogue, as it unfolded from 1812 – 1826 illuminate issues critical to the early republic?

They both spoke on their views of Revolution. They also spoke of social inequality and the role of elitists. Adams thought thst elitists were needed in the republic and that they came naturally to a nation. Jefferson said aristocracy left in Europe, but Adams argued that wealthh is what creates inequality. These arguments highlighted many issues in the nation. Adams said equality was an impossible dream. This highlighted feudalism in American and the idea of slavery. Jefferson had slaves but he did not like feudalism. Another theme was the French Revolution. Both men anticipated the growing tension between north and south, so they basically shedded light on the fact that a Civil War might be coming in the near future. They did not like to talk about slavery which was what everybpdy was doing. They talked about the Missouri compromise and both had opposing views on it. Jefferson thought that states should make their own decision on whther to have slavery and Adams thought it should be the federal government's deeision. Again we see the difference between Adam's views of a strong federal government and Jefferson's view on a a more centralized state government.