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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (57):
0

The flow of population was mainly toward the

Cities

1

Much of westward movement was in fact towards the

Cities, such as San Fran

2

The city dwellers in the NE were

Landless and homeless: could only offer labor

3

What allowed city building to expand vertically to accommodate surging population

Developments in heating, as fireplaces were no longer needed, Otis Elevator company, cast iron and steel frame construction

4

Cities expanded horizontally after what innovations in transportation?

Cable cars that clamped onto a moving underground cable driven by a central power source, steam powered trains, electric trolleys, subways

5

The spread of mass transit allowed the creation of

People becoming commuters, and suburbs

6

Many of the rich went out of the city went out of the city while the poor, stayed

In the city, allowing for congestion and crime

7

In times of rural depression people would often go to

The cities

8

Unregulated urban growth created problems with

Sanitation, health, and morale

9

What were tentements?

6-8 story buildings that held multiple housing units where families were crammed together. Disease was a problem

10

The cities were overflowed with

Contaminated water, horse urine, and manure, roaming pigs, and untreated sewage

11

What water related diseases came!

Cholera, typhoid fever, and yellow fever

12

Sanitary reformers, public health officials and municipal engineers, persuaded

City governments to banish hogs and cattle within the city limit, mount cleanup campaigns, build water and sewage systems, trash collect, and replace horses with street cars

13

What did this reforms also cause

Waste dumped into water,

14

What was a common thought at the time?

Flush and forget about it. Believed water purified itself so they dumped it into massive waters and bays

15

Ethnic neighborhoods in cities preserved

Familiar folkways and shielded newcomers from the shocks of a strange culture

16

Why did immigrants come to America?

Some were persecuted, lack of opportunity and pulled by America's promise

17

American companies, seeking cheap labor

Often advertised propoganda

18

Under the Contract Labor Act of 1864?

The federal government helped pay an immigrant's passage

19

In 1885, the government forbad companies

To import contract labor, putting immigrants under the control of their employers

20

Most immigrants arriving in America passed through

Ellis Island

21

Since most immigrants knew little English and knew nothing about American employment practices, they were

Easy subjects for exploitation

22

Whenever the new immigrants came in, older residents

Typically moved out, taking with them whatever social prestige and political influence they had achieved

23

Why did nativists believe that immigrants were threatening American culture?

They were illiterate, could not speak English, some restored to crime,

24

The did the Chinese face great discrimination?

Because they were not white, not Christian, and not literate

25

Other reasons the Chinese were discriminated?

Often accepted lower wages, and their habits of thrift, self denial, and industry

26

What was the Chinese Exclusion Act

Banned Chinese immigration for ten years. Gained much support

27

Henry Cabot Lodge did what?

Took up the cause of excluding illiterate foreigners. Organized the Immigration Restriction League

28

Those arrivals from China who could claim chinese American parent

Were allowed to enter, along with certain officials, teachers, merchants, and students

29

Traditionally, people in rural areas were

Tied to the rituals of harvest season and intimately connected with their neighbors and extended families

30

Many middle class urban whites had more money to be mobile as they

Were primarily associated to other memebers of their nuclear family

31

In the half century after the Civil War,

Newspapers were the primary means of education

32

Most of the newspapers were openly

Partisan, associating with one of the major national political parties

33

The most popular destination for the urban working class were

Saloons and dance halls. More saloons than grocery stores

34

Saloons were financed by

German American owned breweries

35

Saloons were in effect

Public homes, offering haven and fellowship who worked 10 hours a day six days of the week

36

Saloons were especially proper among

Male immigrants seeking companionship

37

Saloons were definitely

Male enclaves. Women and children entered through a side door

38

Women Christian's Temperance union and Anti Saloon League charges the saloons with

Alcoholism, divorce, crime, and absenteeism

39

A movement to create urban parks rose after the creation of

Central Park

40

Fredrick Law Olmsted created parks

And they were for exercise,recreation and escape from city

41

Bicycles Were popular with women

Who chafed at restricting conventions of the Victorian era. Offered exercise, freedom, and access to countryside

42

Married women had little free time because

They had house work and maternal responsibilites

43

Washing clothes, supervising children, or shopping at the local market provided

Opportunities for fellowship with other women

44

Single women had more time for leisure. They would

Cinema, dance halls, theaters, beaches,metc

45

Young single women participated in urban amusements because

Of escape,pleasure, adventure, companionship, and autonomy

46

Basketball was created for a sport

Between the fall and spring seasons

47

Recent immigrants were faithful fans to

Baseball

48

What increased enormously at the end of the 19th century

Prestiges and premises of modern science

49

Every field of though was impaced by

The Origin of the Species by Charles Darwin. Used extensive observations and cast iron logic to argue that most organisms produce many more offspring that can survive

50

What did Darwin advocate?

Natural selection

51

Darwin's findings suggested that there was no

Provisional God directing the cosmos. Evolved through trial and error

52

Most of the faithful viewed evolution as the

Divine will, one of the secondary causes in which God worked

53

Herbert Spencer argued that

Human societies and institutions evolved through the same process of natural selection. Was dismissed by Darwin

54

Social Darwinism implied a

Hands off government policy

55

Lester Frank Ward argued that

Humanity can control the process of evolution. Corporation not competition will better promote progress

56

Government could be the agency of progress by supporting two main goals

Ameliorating poverty and promoting the education of the masses