Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (61):
After the Revolution, Jackson learned
Enough about the law to become an attorney in backwoods Tennessee
Jackson engaged in numerous quarrels which
Often ended in duels
Jackson appealed to the hard pressed
Farming and working people who were ripe for political rebellion
Jackson wanted to
Lower taxes, reduce government spending, shrink the federal bureaucracy, pay off a federal debt, and destroy the Second Back of United States
According to Jackson, people who stayed in office grew
Corrupt and therefore, need to be removed (spoils system)
Jackson VP and SOS?
John C. Calhoun and Martin Van Buren
Why did Jackson lean on Van Buren for advice?
More skill at backroom politics than Calhoun and certainly more freedom to move around to maneuver because of his base in New York
Calhoun was determined to
Defend southern rights
Why did the cabinet snub Peggy Eaton?
Supposed had an affair, and as a result, her husband committed suicide
As a result of the snobs, Eaton
Resigned from cabinet
The only way to restore harmony in the cabinet was to
Disband and start over
Why was the Maysville Road vetoed?
Called it unconstitutional and shocked Clay.
Why did people label Jackson as a tyrant?
Because he vetoed many bills. Jackson was determined to strenghten the executive branch and stick to his principles
Why did SC face a depression?
The high tariffs. This worsened because of low cotton prices and infertile soil
Tariff of 1828?
Pushed rates up to almost 50% of the value of imported goods. Led Calhoun to write South Carolina Exposition and Protest
What was the tariff designed to do?
Protect northern manufacturers
Hayne argued that
The government endangered the Union by imposing any policy that would cause a hardship in one section and benefit of another
What was the Web-Hayne debate about?
Government owned western lands
Daniel Webster denied that
The East showed restrictive policy towards the west
Hayne said that it was the state's job to see when federal government has stepped over the lines? Webster responded that
We are a Union. If one state could nullify, that would put the Union as a rope of sand
This debate made the
National Republicans a household name
Calhoun responded to Jackson's provoke to
"The union, next to liberty most dear
How did the rift begin?
When Calhoun wanted Jackson disciplined for invading Florida
The acidic rift caused
All Calhoun partisans to be removed
Calhoun openly opposed Jackson by
Assuming public leadership of the South Carolina nullificationists
Tariff of 1832, pushed through by JQA,
Reduced duties on many items, but iron and cloth tariffs were still high
What did SC fear!
That federal authority to impose tariffs might eventually to end slavery
The state legislature proposed that if any citizen
Lost land to federal authorites, the state will recover twice its value
The legislator chose
Hayne as governor snd Calhoun to succeed him as senator
What was a force bill?
Basically forcing Congress to agree
What dod Clay compromise?
That tariff would gradually go down until 1842
The civilized tribes surrounded by whites merged
In with white soceity
Most of the northern tribes were
Too weak to resist the officers and often used alcohol or bribery
On the whole, there was
Remarkably low resistance
Black Hawk War?
Illinois militia mobilized to expel the Sauk and Fox tribes, and chased them into Wisconsin territory
When was Seminole resistance out down?
When their lesser Osceola was seized, imprisoned and left to die at Fort Moultrie
In 1827 the Cherokees
Adopted a constitution in which they were declared not subject to the laws of any other nation
After mid 1830'state law in Georgia would extend
To the Cherokees loving within the boundaries of the state
What caused whites to be hungry for Cherokee land?
Discovery of gold
In Cherokee v. Georgia John Marshall ruled that the
Court lacked jurisdiction because the Cherokees were a domestic independent nation
What did the bank do?
Served as the depository for all federal funds but also issued currency and made loans
The huge size enabled it to
Determine the amount of credit available for the nation
The South and the West feared the
Scope and power of the monopolistic national bank. Southerners claimed that the North used it for their own benefit
Jackson believed that
Hard money was the only legitimate exchange
How did SBOUS supply a stable currency?
To keep enough golf and silver in their vaults to back their paper currency
When did dislike for the Masonic order start showing up?
When william morgan disappeared. Fear they were some sort of tyrannical group
The common purpose of the Anti-Masonic party was to
Stamp out an organization that was contaminating the heart of the republic
Anti Masonic had three important firsts
First third party, first party to hold a national nominating convention, and first to announce a platform
Roger B Taney adhered to
Jackson's requests of the removal of the bank
Taney deposited all new receipts in
State banks, or pet banks. Senate voted to censure Jackson because of it
Biddle, in response,
Order it to curtail loans and demand the redemption of state banknotes in gold or silver as quickly as possible. Sought to bring economy to halt to demonstrate importance of national bank
The supreme irony of Jackson's war with the bank is that it
Created the mania he most feared
The Specie Circular
The government would only accept gold and silver coins in the payment of land. Settlers had very few of it and relied on speculators
The core whigs supported
They also favored
Internal improvements, national banks, and high tariffs
In the South, the Whigs
Enjoyed the support of the urban banking and commercial interests. In the West, farmers who valued government funded stuff
Van buren was
The Little Magician
What caused the Panic of 1837?
Depression in England, which resulted in a drop in price of American cotton
Also, there was a failire
In the wheat crop, the export of which in good years helped offset the drain of payments
The working class
Was hit hard. Many were jobless and wages were cut