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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (80):

In the 1850s the US shared a

Passion for politics and political issues


What was the Wilmot Proviso?

Ignited the festering debate over the extension of slavery. Basically said that slavery should be outlawed in the new territory


Polk dismissed the Proviso as

Mischievous and foolish


Calhoun declared that getting rid of slavery would

Violate the Fifth Amendment, which forbids Congress to derive any person of liberty, life, and property


Popular sovereignty would take the

Contentious issue of allowing slavery in new territories out of the national arena and put it in the hands of those affected


Territorial status for Oregon was delayed because

Its provisional government had excluded slavery


President Polk signed the bill on the principle that Oregon was

North of 36 30


The Democratic Party simply denied

The power of congress to interfere with slavery in the states and criticized anti-slavery activists to bring the question before Congress


Free soil in the new territories, rather than abolition ing in the slave states for those who opposed slavery, cuz

The Northwest Ordinance snd Missouri Compromise supported honored precedents for doing so


The free soil party was formed by

Rebellious Northern Democrats, anti-slavery Whigs, and members of the Liberty Party


Free Soil elected

Martin Van Buren


The infusion of California gold into the US economy helped

Finance the Union military effort in the Civil War


The gold rush also shifted the nation's center of gravity

Westward, spurred the construction of railroads and telegraph lines, and excited dreams of a an empire based in the Pacific


In California, few were

Interested in establishing a permanent settlement. Most were unmarried men


Those women who lived in the camps,

Demand a premium for their work


Decided to use California's statehood request as a lever

To end the stalemate in Congress brought by the slavery issue


What was Clay's Compromise in 1850?

Admit Cali as a free state, organize the territories of New Mexico and Utah for popular sovereignty, deny Texas of their extreme claim to New Mexico, to compensate Texas by having a federal government pay the pre-annexation Texas debts, retain slavery in DOC, abolish slave trade there, adopt a more effective fugitive slave law, deny congressional authority to interfere with a state slave trade


The Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850

Strengthened the hand of slave catchers; it offered a strong temptation to kidnap free blacks in northern free states


The slaves could not get a

Jury trial


Uncle Tom's Cabin written because of the

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850


The novel UTC depicts a combination

Of unlikely saints and sinners, stereotypes, fugitive slaves, and melodramatic escapedes, and made the reality of the story brutal


At the time of publication of UTC,

The country was enjoying a surge of prosperity fueled by California gold


In the election of 1852 the Democrats chose

Franklin Pierce, the whigs Millard Fillmore, Northern Whigs chose Winfield Scott, and John Hale for the free soilers


Franklin Pierce

Fought in the Mexican War,, promoted Western expansion, but unable to unite the warring factions of his party


By the Gadsen Purchase of 1853,

The US paid Mexico 10 million for land offering a likely route for a transcontinental railroad


Jefferson Davis favored the

Gadsen Purchase for the railroad, and go through the territories granted to the Indians


Douglas, favored a

That Chicago should be the transcontinental railroad's eastern terminus


Stephen Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Acr,

That allowed them to have popular sovereignty


Douglas's motive for this act include

Railroads and popular sovereignty would quiet the slavery issue, and open the Great Plains to development


In abandoning the Missouri Compromise and allowing people to chose slavery, Douglas

Renewed sectional tensions and forced moderate political leaders to align with the extremes


In the end the K-N act would

Destroy the Whig party, fragment the Democratic party, and spark a territorial civil war in Kansas


The tragic flaw in Douglas's reasoning was his failure to appreciate the

Trowing intensity of anti-slavery sentiment spreading across the country


Sam Houston denounced the K-N act because

It denounced the Missouri Compromise, and confirmation of territory dedicated to the Indians


Many in the North reasoned that if the Missouri Compromise was not

A sacred pledge, then neither was the Fugitive Slave Act


Anthony Burns

Was caught. He was put on trial and was marched to Virginia. It was heavily protested against and was the most dramatic demonstration against the act


Republican party was formed from

Northern Whigs and Free Soilers


Southern Whigs formed the

Know Nothing Party


In Kansas, the law said nothing about the timing of any decision,

Which gave a sense of urgency to take control of the territory


The governor denounced the pro-slavery vote as a fraud, but

Didn't do anything to avoid getting killed


The territorial legislature expelled

Its few anti slavery members, adopted a drastic slave code, and made it a capital offense to aid a fugitive slave and a felony to question the legality of slavery


A state government in Topeka

Drafted a state constitution excluding both slavery and feee blacks from Kansas, and applied for admission. There were now two governments in Kansas


What was the Pottawatomie Massacre?

It was when John Brown and bis anti-slavery followers hacked five me to death. It set off a guerrilla in the Kansas Territory that lasted through fall


Missouri ruffians then assualted

Osawatomie Kansas where they looted and shot Fredrick Brown


A pro slavery mob did what on Lawrence?

Destroyed newspaper presses, set fire to the governor's house, stole property, and damaged the Free-State Hotel


Sumner insulted slave owners

Got caned by Preston Brooks


The beating of the Sumner lead many northerners

To go to the Republican Party


The Republicans

Were against slavery, favored a funding of a transcontinental railroad, and more government financed internal improvements


Pierce struggled with

Alcoholism and self doubt


In 1860, the Democrats chose

James Buchanan a former senator and secretary of state


The Democratic Platform of 1860 did what?

Endorsed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, called for vigorous enforcement of the fugitive slave act, and Congress should not endorse in slavery


The Democratic party reached out to the

Irish and German voters by condemning nativism and endorsing religious liberty


His long quest for presidency had been built on

His commitment on states rights and his aggressive promotion of territorial expansion


Buchanan believed that

Saving the Union depended upon concessions to the South


What were the three major events in Buchanan's presidency!

Dred Scott, new troubles in Kansas, and a financial panic that lead the US into a financial panic


What happened in the Dred Scott case?

When his owner died, Dred Scott tried to buy his freedom. Jury decided in his favor. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that Scott lacked citizenship, as did all of his foreign slaves. Taney argued that the Missouri Compromise had deprived citizens of property by prohibiting slavery in selected states, an action not warranted by the Constitution


What Dred Scott case

First time that a law (Missouri Compromise) was declared unconstitutional, challenged popular sovergenity. If congress itself could not exclude slavery from a territory, then presumably neither could a territoral government created by an act of Congress


Republicans protested Dred Scott because it

Nullified their anti slavery program


Congress had an obligation to protect the property of slaveholders, making a federal slave code

The next step in the militant effort to end slavery


President Buchanan

Endorsed the pro slavery Lecompton convention


Stephen Douglas favored with the Republicans because

The people of Kansas were denied to vote on the issue


Even though the convention was highly against the Lecompton Constitution

It was passed because of Buchanan's support.


However, Democrats put through a supervised popular vote for Kansas,

Where anti slavery won


The panic of 1857 happened because

Of a reduction in foreign demand for American grain, overly aggressive railroad construction, a surge in manufacturing production that outran the growth of market demand, and the confusion by the state banknote system. The Failure of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company precipitated the panic and lead to a financial slump


Northern businessmen tended to blame the depression on the

Democratic Tariff of 1857, which had cut rates on imports


The result was that

Cotton reinforced its importance and that slave based agriculture was far superior in the North


What was the debate about?

Popular sovergnity vs against further expansion of slavery


How did Douglas answer Lincoln's question on how he could reconcile popular sovereignty with the Dred Scott decision, when citizens had the right to carry citizens from every territory?

Freeport Doctrine- whatever the Supreme Court said about slavery, it could not exist anywhere unless supported by local police regulations


Lincoln insisted that the

Union could not exist wit it being half slave and half free


John Potter

Scalped a Mississippi Congressman


John Brown had a furtive existence,

Acquiring money and weapons from prominent New England sympathizers


John Brown claimed he was

Carrying out a divine mission on a behalf of a vengeful God


What Was Brown's plan at Harper's Ferry?

Ludicrous plan was to seize teh arsenal then arm thousands of slaves in the area. Would set up a black stronghold in the mountains of western Virginia, thus providing a nucleus of support to inspire soave insurrections across the South


What Brown and his soldiers did?

His soldiers of a vengeful God actually did was take the town by surprise, cut the telegraph lines, and take control of the railroad station, musket factory, rifle world and arsenal


Few actually called To Brown's call to arms, and

Were surrounded. Watson, his son, raised the white, hoping to trade hostages for his freedom, but angry crowd shot them both. Confused shooting ensued and were put down


Brown achieved two things

Became a martyr of the anti slavery cause, and set off a panic of the slaveholding South


John Brown's raid led the rebellion to



Another effect of John Brown's raid was that

South was afraid of slave revolt and pro slavery southerners were encouraged to equate the militant abolitionism of John Brown with the Republican partu


The Democrats nominated

Northern- Douglas, Southern- Breckinridge


William Seward was not chosen because

He was tagged as an extremist for his earlier statements about an irrepressible conflict over slaveryv


The Republican Party platform debounced

The Dred Scott decision and John Brown's raid. It also promised the right of each state to order and control its own domestic institutions