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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (91):
0

What was the Patriot army made up of?

A rustic militia that had been enrolled for six months.

1

Washington was pleased that the soldiers were from different colonies because

As one, they were continental

2

Recruits who violated army rules were

Placed in the stockade, flogged or sent packing

3

The Revolution was also

An engine for political experimentation and social change

4

British redcoats led by William Howe, went to

Staten Island to suppress the American Revolution and its first elements of an enormous force

5

Why were non-British soldiers called Hessians?

Most came from the principality of Hesse-Cassel

6

Because such a small force was supposed to defend New York,

Had to expose his outnumbered men to entrapments from which they escaped by luck

7

Battle of Long Island was a

Humiliating defeat

8

Paine's American Crisis bolstered

The shaken moral of the Patriots, and Congress offered more supplies to the troops

9

What was so important about the victories at Princeton and Trenton?

Saved the cause for independence. It was a grand moral boost, and made the Americans a formidable enemy

10

The only hope for winning the war was to

Wear down the patience of the British

11

William Franklin?

Royal governor of NJ, that was an ardent loyalist

12

Who were the Whigs?

They formed the Continental Army

13

Who were the less committed group?

Swayed mostly by the better organized and more energized radicals

14

What did the Tories opposes?

The unnatural and unprovoked Rebelliln

15

Loyalists were concentrated in the

Seaport cities

16

Governors, judges and other royal officers

Were almost all Loyalists

17

American militiamen also

Defended their local communities

18

Many of the Patriots found camp life

Debilitating and combat horrifying

19

Congress reluctantly let

Army agents take supplies directly from farmers in return for future payments

20

What was the greatest enemy during the stay at Morristown?

Smallpox

21

The successful inoculation of the American army

Marks one of the greatest strategical accomplishments of the war

22

What was offered by congress if one enlisted for three years or for the duration of the conflict

Bounty of $20 and 100 acres of land

23

Why was gaining control of NY so important?

It would cut NE from the rest of the colonies

24

Why was the New York attack unsuccessful!

Miscommunications

25

Howe instead deuces to move

Against Philly, expecting that the PA loyalists would rally up to the crown

26

Because the British owned Philly,

Washington stationed at Valley Forge

27

Continental Congress relocated to

York, Penn

28

Barrymore St. Leger led a small army,

Where a force of Iroquois joined them

29

Horatio Gates led a movement of

German farmers and their Indian allies, and gained time to arrive at nearby Fort Stanwix

30

Because Gates rejected to surrender Fort Stanwix,

Iroquois abandoned them

31

John Stark led

NE militiamen to decimate a detachment of Hessians and Loyalists foraging for sip likes

32

The American army surrounded Saratoga, and

Burgoyne surrendered and left NA

33

William Pitt

You cannot conquer America

34

Treaty of Amity and Commerce

France recognized the new US and offered trade concessions

35

Treaty of Alliance

France and U.S. Allows until war was over, guaranteed each other's possessions

36

What was the most important thing to the Americans?

The French navy

37

Spain entered the war as an ally to

France

38

Parliament repealed many acts, but the Americans would not stop fighting if

Britain recognized American independence or withdrew its forces

39

Many left the army because of

Valley forge

40

In desperation, Washington

Confiscated horses, cattle, and hogs in exchange for receipts to be honored by the Continental Congress

41

In the spring of 78,

British forces withdrew from Pennsylvania to New York

42

George Rogers Clark led an expedition to capture

Kakaskia. The French inhabitants were overjoyed when they learned that France partnered with USA for the war

43

Led by Joseph Brant

Th Iroquois had killed hundreds of militiamen along the Pennsylvania frontier

44

In response to the Mohawk, Washington sent

John Sullivan to suppress the hostile tribes and the Tories. This left many Indians unable to survive and broke the Iroquois confederacy

45

Henry Clinton sent men to take

Savannah, gaining momentum by enlisting Loyalists and Cherokees

46

Initially, Clinton's strategy worked as

They and defeated 3 american armies, took Savannah and Charleston, and occupied SC and GA

47

Why was the war in the south not so easy as planned?

There were fewer Loyalists than estimated, the British effort to unleash Indian Attacks convinced many undecided settlers to join the patriots, and the Loyalist soldiers behaved so harshly that some switched sides

48

Who defeated the American troops at Charleston?

Cornwallis

49

Why were the Southern colonies more important to the British?

Became they produced valuable cash crops

50

Who were Tarleton and Ferguson?

We're in charge of mobilizing, training, and leading Loyalist militiamen. They burned farms, liberated slaves, and stole livestock

51

What was the Battle of King's Mountain?

The turning point for the war in the south as hunters pursued Ferguson's men

52

Nathaniel Green was

Washington ablest general and new commander of the southern theater

53

Daniel Morgan's forced took position at Cowpens, and

Tarleton pursued but got ambushed. Cowpens was the most complete tactical victory for the Americsn side of the revolution

54

Green lured Cornwalis northward but

The redcoats were defeated at Guilford Courthouse

55

What did Benedict Arnold want to do?

Crassly plotted to sell out the American garrison at West Point to the British, and even suggested seizing George Washington himself as

56

Major John André had

Ended Arnold's plot. Warned that his plan might be discovered, Arnold joined the British in NY , and the Americans hanged André as a spy

57

What did Captain John Paul Jones do?

Jones and his crew won a desperate battle against a British frigate

58

Thanks to the French navy, Britain

Lost control of the Chesapeake

59

As Cornwalis moved into VA,

GW persuaded the commander of the French army in Rhode Island to join forces for an attack on the British army

60

Admiral François-Joseph-Paul de Grasse, bound for the Chesapeake

forced Washington to change his strategy

61

When de Grasse's fleet arrived,

They forced the British navy to give up the effort to relieve Cornwallis. Cornwsllis, who had a half-sized army surrendered

62

Although the British controlled many cities, the House of

Commons voted against continuing the war, and Lord North later resigned

63

Why did Britain decide to end the war?

Concentrate on their global conflicts with Spain and France

64

The continental congress named commissioners go negotiate a peace treaty in Paris:

Include the cranky John Adams representing the USA in Durchland, John Jay ambassador to Spain, and Ben Franklin, already in France

65

Results of the treaty of Paris?

GB recognized their independence, view Mississippi River as America's western boundary. Indian tribes not allowed to participate in treatyb

66

Florida was now

British territory

67

The new republic was a nation whose citizens

Were deemed equal before the law and governed themselves through elected and appointed officials

68

To preserve the delicate balance between liberty and power, the revolutionary leaders believed that their new government must be designed to

Protect individual and state's rights

69

Most of the political experimentation occurred as

State constitutions

70

The first state constitutions created a reservoir of ideas and experience that

Formed the basis for the creation of a federal constitution in 1787!

71

Articles of Confederation legalized what

Had become a prevailing practice

72

Congress was intended

As a collective substitute for a monarch

73

The Congress had no power

To enforce its resolutions and ordinance, to levy taxes, and had to rely on requisitions from the states, which the state legislature could ignore

74

The Confederation had

No executive or judicial branch, no administrative head of government, and no federal courts

75

Many Americans hoped that revolution would

Remove, not reinforce, the elite's traditional political and social advantages

76

During and after the revolution, loyalists were

Assaulted, brutalized, and executed by the Patriots

77

Because of the loss, Loyalists had to

Leave the U.S.

78

Because Spain quickly regained Florida, the Loyalists had a choice

Convert to Catholicism or leave. Most left to the USA or British Caribbean Islands

79

Pleas for freedom by slaves were largely

Ignored

80

The British offered

Freedom to slaves and indentured servants who joined the British army

81

In response to British recruitment of African slaves, Washington authorized the enlistment

Of free blacks

82

southerners, however, pleaded George Washington to allow no

More blacks into the army. Later ignored

83

Slaves who supported the cause of independence won

Freedom, and some cases, received parcels of land as well

84

Women supporter the nations in various roles, by

Handling supplies, serving as spies, working as camp followers, cooking, cleaning, and nursing the soldiers,

85

Deborah Simpson did what?

Enrolled in the army as Robert Shurtleff

86

The legal status of women did not improve dramatically as a

Result of the Revolution

87

Most Indian tribes tried to

Remain neutral in the conflict

88

The Mohawks were for the British and the

Oneidas were for the Patriots

89

The new government assured its Indian allies that it would respect their lands and rights, but

The American people had a very different goal

90

How come Independence Day is on July 4?

On July 2, second continental congress declared the U.S. as free and independent states. Adams got everything right bu the date