Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (91):
What was the Patriot army made up of?
A rustic militia that had been enrolled for six months.
Washington was pleased that the soldiers were from different colonies because
As one, they were continental
Recruits who violated army rules were
Placed in the stockade, flogged or sent packing
The Revolution was also
An engine for political experimentation and social change
British redcoats led by William Howe, went to
Staten Island to suppress the American Revolution and its first elements of an enormous force
Why were non-British soldiers called Hessians?
Most came from the principality of Hesse-Cassel
Because such a small force was supposed to defend New York,
Had to expose his outnumbered men to entrapments from which they escaped by luck
Battle of Long Island was a
Paine's American Crisis bolstered
The shaken moral of the Patriots, and Congress offered more supplies to the troops
What was so important about the victories at Princeton and Trenton?
Saved the cause for independence. It was a grand moral boost, and made the Americans a formidable enemy
The only hope for winning the war was to
Wear down the patience of the British
Royal governor of NJ, that was an ardent loyalist
Who were the Whigs?
They formed the Continental Army
Who were the less committed group?
Swayed mostly by the better organized and more energized radicals
What did the Tories opposes?
The unnatural and unprovoked Rebelliln
Loyalists were concentrated in the
Governors, judges and other royal officers
Were almost all Loyalists
American militiamen also
Defended their local communities
Many of the Patriots found camp life
Debilitating and combat horrifying
Congress reluctantly let
Army agents take supplies directly from farmers in return for future payments
What was the greatest enemy during the stay at Morristown?
The successful inoculation of the American army
Marks one of the greatest strategical accomplishments of the war
What was offered by congress if one enlisted for three years or for the duration of the conflict
Bounty of $20 and 100 acres of land
Why was gaining control of NY so important?
It would cut NE from the rest of the colonies
Why was the New York attack unsuccessful!
Howe instead deuces to move
Against Philly, expecting that the PA loyalists would rally up to the crown
Because the British owned Philly,
Washington stationed at Valley Forge
Continental Congress relocated to
Barrymore St. Leger led a small army,
Where a force of Iroquois joined them
Horatio Gates led a movement of
German farmers and their Indian allies, and gained time to arrive at nearby Fort Stanwix
Because Gates rejected to surrender Fort Stanwix,
Iroquois abandoned them
John Stark led
NE militiamen to decimate a detachment of Hessians and Loyalists foraging for sip likes
The American army surrounded Saratoga, and
Burgoyne surrendered and left NA
You cannot conquer America
Treaty of Amity and Commerce
France recognized the new US and offered trade concessions
Treaty of Alliance
France and U.S. Allows until war was over, guaranteed each other's possessions
What was the most important thing to the Americans?
The French navy
Spain entered the war as an ally to
Parliament repealed many acts, but the Americans would not stop fighting if
Britain recognized American independence or withdrew its forces
Many left the army because of
In desperation, Washington
Confiscated horses, cattle, and hogs in exchange for receipts to be honored by the Continental Congress
In the spring of 78,
British forces withdrew from Pennsylvania to New York
George Rogers Clark led an expedition to capture
Kakaskia. The French inhabitants were overjoyed when they learned that France partnered with USA for the war
Led by Joseph Brant
Th Iroquois had killed hundreds of militiamen along the Pennsylvania frontier
In response to the Mohawk, Washington sent
John Sullivan to suppress the hostile tribes and the Tories. This left many Indians unable to survive and broke the Iroquois confederacy
Henry Clinton sent men to take
Savannah, gaining momentum by enlisting Loyalists and Cherokees
Initially, Clinton's strategy worked as
They and defeated 3 american armies, took Savannah and Charleston, and occupied SC and GA
Why was the war in the south not so easy as planned?
There were fewer Loyalists than estimated, the British effort to unleash Indian Attacks convinced many undecided settlers to join the patriots, and the Loyalist soldiers behaved so harshly that some switched sides
Who defeated the American troops at Charleston?
Why were the Southern colonies more important to the British?
Became they produced valuable cash crops
Who were Tarleton and Ferguson?
We're in charge of mobilizing, training, and leading Loyalist militiamen. They burned farms, liberated slaves, and stole livestock
What was the Battle of King's Mountain?
The turning point for the war in the south as hunters pursued Ferguson's men
Nathaniel Green was
Washington ablest general and new commander of the southern theater
Daniel Morgan's forced took position at Cowpens, and
Tarleton pursued but got ambushed. Cowpens was the most complete tactical victory for the Americsn side of the revolution
Green lured Cornwalis northward but
The redcoats were defeated at Guilford Courthouse
What did Benedict Arnold want to do?
Crassly plotted to sell out the American garrison at West Point to the British, and even suggested seizing George Washington himself as
Major John André had
Ended Arnold's plot. Warned that his plan might be discovered, Arnold joined the British in NY , and the Americans hanged André as a spy
What did Captain John Paul Jones do?
Jones and his crew won a desperate battle against a British frigate
Thanks to the French navy, Britain
Lost control of the Chesapeake
As Cornwalis moved into VA,
GW persuaded the commander of the French army in Rhode Island to join forces for an attack on the British army
Admiral François-Joseph-Paul de Grasse, bound for the Chesapeake
forced Washington to change his strategy
When de Grasse's fleet arrived,
They forced the British navy to give up the effort to relieve Cornwallis. Cornwsllis, who had a half-sized army surrendered
Although the British controlled many cities, the House of
Commons voted against continuing the war, and Lord North later resigned
Why did Britain decide to end the war?
Concentrate on their global conflicts with Spain and France
The continental congress named commissioners go negotiate a peace treaty in Paris:
Include the cranky John Adams representing the USA in Durchland, John Jay ambassador to Spain, and Ben Franklin, already in France
Results of the treaty of Paris?
GB recognized their independence, view Mississippi River as America's western boundary. Indian tribes not allowed to participate in treatyb
Florida was now
The new republic was a nation whose citizens
Were deemed equal before the law and governed themselves through elected and appointed officials
To preserve the delicate balance between liberty and power, the revolutionary leaders believed that their new government must be designed to
Protect individual and state's rights
Most of the political experimentation occurred as
The first state constitutions created a reservoir of ideas and experience that
Formed the basis for the creation of a federal constitution in 1787!
Articles of Confederation legalized what
Had become a prevailing practice
Congress was intended
As a collective substitute for a monarch
The Congress had no power
To enforce its resolutions and ordinance, to levy taxes, and had to rely on requisitions from the states, which the state legislature could ignore
The Confederation had
No executive or judicial branch, no administrative head of government, and no federal courts
Many Americans hoped that revolution would
Remove, not reinforce, the elite's traditional political and social advantages
During and after the revolution, loyalists were
Assaulted, brutalized, and executed by the Patriots
Because of the loss, Loyalists had to
Leave the U.S.
Because Spain quickly regained Florida, the Loyalists had a choice
Convert to Catholicism or leave. Most left to the USA or British Caribbean Islands
Pleas for freedom by slaves were largely
The British offered
Freedom to slaves and indentured servants who joined the British army
In response to British recruitment of African slaves, Washington authorized the enlistment
Of free blacks
southerners, however, pleaded George Washington to allow no
More blacks into the army. Later ignored
Slaves who supported the cause of independence won
Freedom, and some cases, received parcels of land as well
Women supporter the nations in various roles, by
Handling supplies, serving as spies, working as camp followers, cooking, cleaning, and nursing the soldiers,
Deborah Simpson did what?
Enrolled in the army as Robert Shurtleff
The legal status of women did not improve dramatically as a
Result of the Revolution
Most Indian tribes tried to
Remain neutral in the conflict
The Mohawks were for the British and the
Oneidas were for the Patriots
The new government assured its Indian allies that it would respect their lands and rights, but
The American people had a very different goal