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What was the critical period?

The time the USA was under the Articles of Confederation

1

The Articles of Confederation established a

Unicameral congress dominated by state legislatures that appointed its members

2

What couldn't the Congress do?

Levy taxes, regulate foreign or interstate commerce, pay off nations' debts, no power to enforce provisions

3

Who was Robert Morris?

Superintendent of finance in the final years of the war, developed a program of taxation and debt management to make the national government more stable

4

What would the Bank of North America do?

Hold government funds, lend money to the government and issue currency

5

Morris's program depended on

The government having a secure income and it foundered the requirement if unanimous state approval for the amendments of the state constituents

6

What was the Newburgh Conspiracy?

The camp of GW had grown restless, and the officers feared the land grants promised would never be issued.

7

A delegation of concerned army members traveled to Philly, where they soon found

Themselves drawn into a scheme to line up army officers and public creditors with nationalists in Congress and confirmed the states with threats unless they yielded more power to Congress?

8

What was GW's reaction to the Newburgh Conspiracy?

He sympathized with the Basic purpose of Hamilton's scheme. But Washington convinced that a military coup would be both dishonorable and dangerous

9

GW thought that threatening a mutinous coup violated

The very purposes of the war and directly challenged its own integrity

10

Under the Articles of Confederation, land not included within the 13 original states

Became public domain, owned and administrated by the national government

11

Under the land ordinance that Jefferson wrote in 1784,

When a territory's population equaled of the smallest existing state, it would be qualified for statehood?

12

Land Ordinance of 1785?

It outlined a plan for land surveys and sales that would eventually stamp a rectangular pattern on much of the nation's surface

13

The terms of 1785 favored

Speculators

14

What was the NW ordinance?

At first the territory fell subject to a governor, a secretary, and three judges. Once at 5000 male adults, it could have an assembly

15

What were the difference between NW ordinance and royal colonies?

Once at 60,000 free inhabitants, it could have statehood, secondly they had a bill of rights, and no slavery

16

The NW ordinance had a larger importance,

It represented a sharp break with the imperialistic European expansion, and Western territories. Equals rather than subordinate colonies

17

The Treaty of Fort Sranwix?

The Iroquois were forced to cede land in western New York and Pennsylvania

18

Treaty of Hopewell?

The Cherokees gave up all claims in SC, mush of western NC, and large portions of Kentucky and Tennessee

19

Commercial agriculture dependent upon trade with foreign makers

Collapsed during the war because of the British liberating slaves and British decision to close West Indies from trade

20

After the war, American ships could not

Carry British goods anywhere else

21

After the war, American

Trade flourished because it wasn't just with Britain

22

Why were there British forts along the Canadian border?

It was justified because America failed to pay their pre war debts

23

What did the Treaty of Paris guarantee to Tories?

Immunity for 12 months so they could return from Canada or Great Britain to wind up their affairs

24

By the end of 1787, all the states had

Rescinded laws in conflict with the peace treaty

25

The right to send boats and barges down the Mississippi was crucial to the growing American settlements in Kentucky and Tennessee, but

Louisiana Spanish's governor closed the river to American commerce and began to conspire with indians and settlers against the U.S.

26

most people were affected by

economic troubles and the acute currency shortage after the war

27

Steak governments and post special taxes on British vessels and special tariffs on the goods they brought the United States

But it failed to work because of the lack of uniformity among the states

28

Skilled workers want to bury his greatest team from the states tariffs on imports

That competed with their goods

29

Short of cash and other post more economical difficulties gave rise to more immediate demand for

Paper currency for postponement of tax in debt payments and for laws to delay the foreclosure of mortgages

30

What was the main problem with Shays rebellion

Too little paper money and high taxation

31

Shays and his followers saw a more flexible monetary policy

Laws allowing them to use corn and wheat as money in the right postpone paying taxes until the postwar agricultural depression lifted

32

The federal government responded to Shays rebellion

By sending a militia that put down the rebellion as well as a call to revise the articles of confederation

33

Where did the Constitutional convention meet

Philly

34

Patrick Henry who was a foe centralized government

Refused to represent his state

35

The people who attended the Constitutional convention were

Extremely diverse in their occupations but all had experiences in the revolution

36

Benjamin Franklin was able to provide

Wit and commonsense behind the scenes

37

James Madison was the ablest

Political Philosopherin the entire group

38

Eldridge Gerry earned the nickname

Old Grumbletonain does he opposed everything that he didn't propose

39

James Madison emerged as the

Central figure at the convention

40

The conceiving eloquence of James Madison's arguments proved

Decisive

41

On certain fundamentals they generally agreed

That government derives its just powers from the consent of the people that society must be protected from the tyranny of the majority of the people at large must have a voice in the government and that is stronger central government is necessary

42

What was the Virginia plan

That the delicate scrap their instructions to revise The articles of Confederation instead draft a new paper

43

Who was the one who propose separate legislative executive and judicial branches

James Madison

44

The Congress would be divided into two houses

Laura house chosen by the citizens and upper house of senators elected by state legislators

45

It was the New Jersey plan

It's sought out to keep existing structure of equal representation of the states in a unicameral Congress but give Congress the power to levy taxes and regulate commerce in the authority to make an executive and the Supreme Court

46

What was the great compromise

The more Populous states won appointment by the population in the House of Representatives and all states won equality in the Senate

47

According to James Madison the real difference of interest

Lies between the northern and southern states

48

Framers of the Constitution did not even consider the possibility of abolishing slavery

Nor did they view the enslaved people as human beings whose right should be protected by the Constitution

49

What did John Rutledge propose

Religion in humanity have nothing to do with this labor question interest alone is the governing principle of nations

50

Because slaves made up the majority of the population in the southern states

The seven states wanted them to be counted as peoples so that they could have bigger representation in Congress

51

Norners were willing to count slaves for each state's share of taxes

But not representation

52

It's finally compromise that slaves

Would be counted as 3/5 of people

53

Congress cannot prohibit that trans Atlantic slave trade

Before 1808

54

Constitutional delegates found it irrevenant

Talk about the role of Women

55

The Constitution prohibits any future emigrant from

Being president limiting office to a natural born citizen

56

What was the first naturalization law

Denied citizenship to people of African descent

57

The delicates establish that the United States was to be

Representative not literal democracy

58

The new president would have

Vito over acts of Congress subject to being overwritten by two thirds vote in each house commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and responsible for the execution of the laws make treatiesWith the advice and consent of two thirds of the Senate

59

Chief executive could not

Declare war or peace, could be removed from office by a two thirds vote of the Senate

60

Who were the leading nationalists Constitution

James Madison James Wilson and Alexander Hamilton

61

Before long nearly all the states were choosing

The presidential electors by popular vote and the electors forecasting the votes as they have played them before the election

62

What could the Supreme Court do

Review congressional actions judicial review in cases involving both state and federal laws

63

Although the Constitution extend vast new powers to national government

The delegates miss trust of uncheck power is a parent and repeated examples of countervailing forces

64

Amendments can be proposed either by

Two thirds vote of each vote in the national Congress or buy a convention specially called upon application of two thirds of the state legislators

65

Amendments can be ratified by

Approval of three fourths of the states or in special conventions

66

Who were the federalist

Advocates the new constitution

67

Who were the anti-Federalist

Opponent who favored a more decentralized federal system

68

Yorker Gilbert living stone spoke for many when he called

The debate the greatest transaction of their lives

69

What were the federalist greatest advantages

Their leaders have been members of the Constitutional convention were already familiar with the disputed issues in the document they were not only better prepared but also better organized in on the whole made up more able leaders in the political community

70

Federalist leaders were more likely to be

Young man who Public credit had begun during the revolution

71

View of the constitutional supporters liked it

In it's entirety, but most believe that it was the best document obtainable

72

What was the The Federalist

A collection of essays in New York newspapers that was instigated by Alexander Hamilton James Madison and John J the essays that they need the principle of the supreme national authority while reassuring doubters that people have little to fear about Tyranny

73

Madison argued that the diversity of the expanding United States

Would make it impossible for any single faction to form a majority that could dominate the government

74

Manison contradicted the conventional wisdom of the time

Which insisted that republics can only survive in small homogeneous countries