Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (77):
What did Lincoln pledge to do while in office?
To not interfere with slavery where it already existed, that no one can lawfully get out of the Union, defend federal forts in the South, collect taxes, and there will be no invasion, and no force against or among the people
Four out of the seven cabinet members were his rivals:
William Seward at State Department, Salmon P. Chase at Treasury, simon Cameron at war department, Edward Bates as attorney general
The cabinet had good abilities but
They were so strong minded that they thought themselves to be better quality
One such challenge was to hold
A diverse coalition of Republicans together amid the civil war
At Fort Sumner, the Union
Lincoln believed that giving up Fort Sumter would give up the Union, so he ordered a resupply rather than a retreat
Jefferson Davis and most of his cabinet (not Robert Tooms) decided to oppose the resupply and
Pierce G.T Beauregard kept battering them until Robert Anderson raised the flag
The fall of Fort Sumter ignited a
Wave of bravado across the Confederate states
What did Lincoln order after Sumter
Naval blockade of southern ports, which led to a shortage of of southern commodities and food. Led to a rise in price in the Confederacy
Many southerners argue that the Civil War was fought on
Behalf of states' rights rather than slavery. Therefore they had the right to secede. And that the north was discriminated their region
What was the real reason that the Confederates seceded?
To preserve slavery
Which states joined the Confederacy after Fort Sumter?
Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia
All four of the holdout states
Had areas where slavery was scarce and Union support was rather strong
Union army from Ohio led by George McClellan, organized
A loyal government to form West Virginia
Many sotuhereners decided to
Remain loyal to the Union by fighting for them
The Union had a
4:1 to ratio with people
What were the Union's advantages?
Had 93% of manufactured goods, 97% of railroads, and 96% of the railroad equipment
The Union had more
Wagons, horses, and ships than the Confederacy and railroads
What were the advantages to the South?
Fighting a defensive battle, more experienced military leaders,
Federal gunboats and transports played an even more direct role for securing
The Mississippi and its larger tributaries. Easy invasion of the Confederacy
What happened in the First Battle of Bull Run?
General Beauregard hurried the main Confederate army to the railroad center at Manassas, Virginia. General Irwin McDowell quickly marched to Richmond. Their strategies were to turn the other's left flank. Joseph E. Johnston poured in to check the Union offensive. Union retreated p, and Confederates failed to give chase. Indicated a long and costly struggle
What was the anaconda strategy?
Extort constant pressure at Richmond, navy would blockade southern ports and divide the Confederacy by invading the South along the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland Rivers
What was Jefferson Davis' strategy?
Stalemate the Union forces and hope that the cotton hungry British or French might join their cause or public sentiment in the North would force Lincoln to seek a negotiated settlement
Why did the British prime minster refused to meet the Confederates again?
Union pressure and British self interest
What threatened British neutrality?
A Union ship stooped the Trent, where they found two Confederate agents, James Mason and John Slidell. British demanded their releases. They were more useful as martyrs to their own cause
In 1862, a law was passed
With all white male citizens aged 18-35 were declared members of the army for three years
The Confederate conscription had two loopholes-
A draftee might escape service either by providing an able bodied substitute or by paying 500. Exemptions, designed to protect key civilian work, were subject to abuse by seeking bombproof jobs
How Did the Union get people to service?
By drafting able bodied men from 20-45. Exemptions were granted to specified federal and state officeholders and to others on medical or compassionate grounds. 300 to avoid service
Many African Americans did what during the outbreak of the war?
Run away, sabotage, join the Union, or pursue their own interests
Grenville Dodge did what
Armed 1000 male slaves to form the 1st Alabama Infantry Regiment of African descent
The most intense fighting in the West occurred
Along the Kansas Missouri border
What did William Quantrill do?
Armed his pro slavery followers, mostly teenagers, started a massacre in Lawrence, Kansas
What did the Jayhawkers do?
Tortured and hanged pro-Confederate officers, burned houses, and destroyed livestock
Indian tribes during the civil war
What was the first major Union victory?
When Grant penetrated the lines of Albert Sidney Johnston. Captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
What was Grant's costly mistake?
Exposed 42,000 men on a rolling plateau . Confederates struck at Shiloh. General Johnston was mortally wounded and his second in command called of the attack and they withdrew to Corinth
What did Henry Hallick do?,
Called Grant a drunk and took Grant's place
What was McClellan's weakness
He was too cautious
McClellan had a chance to strike at Richmond
He didn't. The general complained that the administration had failed to support him and instructed the president at length on military strategy. Replaced by Halleck
What happened at the Second Bull Run?
John Pope got murdered by Jackson and Lee's army
By the end of 1862, the North needed to
Assault slavery itself
The only way around the constitutionality issue about slavery was to,
Justify emancipation as a military necessity
Moreover, emancipation was needed to
Boost the sagging morale. Proclaiming a war on slavery would end any chance that France or Britain would support the Confederacy
What happened at the Battle of Antietam
The battered Confederates retreated to the Potomac. Lincoln was disgusted that McClellan did bot go after the rebels. It was relieved of his duty and was assigned to recruiting duty
What was the significance of the Battle of Antietam?
Relieved sagging morale, issue of the Emancipation Proclomation, and dashed the Confederacy's hopes for foreign recognition
Why was Burnside a foolish Choice
He chose to attack a heavily guarded Confederate Camp in Fredericksburg Virginia. Led to many to call for a peace
What could free blacks do now?
To abstain from violence except in self defense, and that free blacks would now be received into armed services of the United States
Even though slaves in the Union were not freed,
They claimed their freedom anyway
Many Democratic Newspapers in the North called the proclomation
Dictatorial, unconstitutional, and catastrophic
What racism did the blacks deal with?
Not allowed to be commission officers, paid less, were ineligible fir the enlistment bounty paid to white recruits
What was the 13th Amendment?
Removed any doubts about the legality of the emancipation
What did Dorothea Lynde Dix do?
Became the Union army's first superintendent of nurses
How did the Confederacy see God?
That they were guided by the almighty God, only true Christian nation. Saw war as religious crusade. Minsters advocates to war
What did Salmon P,Chase do with the coins?
Added In God we Trust
How did African Muricans see the war?
As their Exodus: god was freeing them from slavery
To meet the war expanding demand, Congress had to
Raise taxes (Morrill Tariff on imports and taxes on manufacturers and every possession and Internal Revenue Act), paper money (Legal Tender Act, 450 million dollars in currency value relied in public trust of the government) And sale of bonds
Why were confederate finances a disaster!
Had to create a revenue collecting bureaucracy from scratch
Confederacy enacted a tax of 0.5% on most forms of property, but the Confederacy
Farmed out its collection of taxes to the states. Chaos ensued. Tried to tax everything but evasion was easy
What led to absolutely outrageous prices on consumer goods?
The Union naval blockade
What did the Radical Republicans want?
Confiscation of southern plantations, immediate emancipation of slaves, and a more vigorous prosecution of the war
What did the Democrat want?
No civil legislation or new economic policies
War Democrats preferred
An end to fighting
Copperhead Democrats called
For an end to the war
David Farragut captured
William Tecumseh Sherman captured
Atlanta, it turned the tide
Tensions were high in the Confederacy because
The poor white farmer expressed resentment of the planter elite
Davis's greatest challenge was from
Southern politicians who had embraced secession and then guarded states' rights against authority of the central government of the Confederacy
The states' right advocates challenged
The legality of the military draft, taxes on farm produce, and suspension of habeas corpus
The Confederacy suffered from an
Excess of dogma
Why was Chancellorsville significant?
Stonewall Jackson lost his arm when he was shot by his own men and made Hooker retreat
Why was Vicksburg significant?
Gained control of Mississippi and split Confederacy into two
Lee wanted to attack on Northern soil to
Persuade the North to end the war
What happened at Gettysburg
George Meade hastened reinforcements to hinew lines. They could not touch him. Pickett wanted to go to cemetery ridge but go murdered
If Maede pursued Lee, he
Might be able to end the war
What is the significance of the Gettysburg Address?
Lincoln predicted that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government by the people, for the people shall bot perish
What happened at the Battle of the Wilderness?
Men fought blindly in the woods, Union had more casualties, but Rebels running out of replacements. Union pulled back but then continue Southward to Spotsylvania Court House
What happened at Cold Harbor?
Frontal assault led to many causalities. Lee headed for Petersburg