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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (77):

What did Lincoln pledge to do while in office?

To not interfere with slavery where it already existed, that no one can lawfully get out of the Union, defend federal forts in the South, collect taxes, and there will be no invasion, and no force against or among the people


Four out of the seven cabinet members were his rivals:

William Seward at State Department, Salmon P. Chase at Treasury, simon Cameron at war department, Edward Bates as attorney general


The cabinet had good abilities but

They were so strong minded that they thought themselves to be better quality


One such challenge was to hold

A diverse coalition of Republicans together amid the civil war


At Fort Sumner, the Union

Lincoln believed that giving up Fort Sumter would give up the Union, so he ordered a resupply rather than a retreat


Jefferson Davis and most of his cabinet (not Robert Tooms) decided to oppose the resupply and

Pierce G.T Beauregard kept battering them until Robert Anderson raised the flag


The fall of Fort Sumter ignited a

Wave of bravado across the Confederate states


What did Lincoln order after Sumter

Naval blockade of southern ports, which led to a shortage of of southern commodities and food. Led to a rise in price in the Confederacy


Many southerners argue that the Civil War was fought on

Behalf of states' rights rather than slavery. Therefore they had the right to secede. And that the north was discriminated their region


What was the real reason that the Confederates seceded?

To preserve slavery


Which states joined the Confederacy after Fort Sumter?

Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia


All four of the holdout states

Had areas where slavery was scarce and Union support was rather strong


Union army from Ohio led by George McClellan, organized

A loyal government to form West Virginia


Many sotuhereners decided to

Remain loyal to the Union by fighting for them


The Union had a

4:1 to ratio with people


What were the Union's advantages?

Had 93% of manufactured goods, 97% of railroads, and 96% of the railroad equipment


The Union had more

Wagons, horses, and ships than the Confederacy and railroads


What were the advantages to the South?

Fighting a defensive battle, more experienced military leaders,


Federal gunboats and transports played an even more direct role for securing

The Mississippi and its larger tributaries. Easy invasion of the Confederacy


What happened in the First Battle of Bull Run?

General Beauregard hurried the main Confederate army to the railroad center at Manassas, Virginia. General Irwin McDowell quickly marched to Richmond. Their strategies were to turn the other's left flank. Joseph E. Johnston poured in to check the Union offensive. Union retreated p, and Confederates failed to give chase. Indicated a long and costly struggle


What was the anaconda strategy?

Extort constant pressure at Richmond, navy would blockade southern ports and divide the Confederacy by invading the South along the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland Rivers


What was Jefferson Davis' strategy?

Stalemate the Union forces and hope that the cotton hungry British or French might join their cause or public sentiment in the North would force Lincoln to seek a negotiated settlement


Why did the British prime minster refused to meet the Confederates again?

Union pressure and British self interest


What threatened British neutrality?

A Union ship stooped the Trent, where they found two Confederate agents, James Mason and John Slidell. British demanded their releases. They were more useful as martyrs to their own cause


In 1862, a law was passed

With all white male citizens aged 18-35 were declared members of the army for three years


The Confederate conscription had two loopholes-

A draftee might escape service either by providing an able bodied substitute or by paying 500. Exemptions, designed to protect key civilian work, were subject to abuse by seeking bombproof jobs


How Did the Union get people to service?

By drafting able bodied men from 20-45. Exemptions were granted to specified federal and state officeholders and to others on medical or compassionate grounds. 300 to avoid service


Many African Americans did what during the outbreak of the war?

Run away, sabotage, join the Union, or pursue their own interests


Grenville Dodge did what

Armed 1000 male slaves to form the 1st Alabama Infantry Regiment of African descent


The most intense fighting in the West occurred

Along the Kansas Missouri border


What did William Quantrill do?

Armed his pro slavery followers, mostly teenagers, started a massacre in Lawrence, Kansas


What did the Jayhawkers do?

Tortured and hanged pro-Confederate officers, burned houses, and destroyed livestock


Indian tribes during the civil war



What was the first major Union victory?

When Grant penetrated the lines of Albert Sidney Johnston. Captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson


What was Grant's costly mistake?

Exposed 42,000 men on a rolling plateau . Confederates struck at Shiloh. General Johnston was mortally wounded and his second in command called of the attack and they withdrew to Corinth


What did Henry Hallick do?,

Called Grant a drunk and took Grant's place


What was McClellan's weakness

He was too cautious


McClellan had a chance to strike at Richmond

He didn't. The general complained that the administration had failed to support him and instructed the president at length on military strategy. Replaced by Halleck


What happened at the Second Bull Run?

John Pope got murdered by Jackson and Lee's army


By the end of 1862, the North needed to

Assault slavery itself


The only way around the constitutionality issue about slavery was to,

Justify emancipation as a military necessity


Moreover, emancipation was needed to

Boost the sagging morale. Proclaiming a war on slavery would end any chance that France or Britain would support the Confederacy


What happened at the Battle of Antietam

The battered Confederates retreated to the Potomac. Lincoln was disgusted that McClellan did bot go after the rebels. It was relieved of his duty and was assigned to recruiting duty


What was the significance of the Battle of Antietam?

Relieved sagging morale, issue of the Emancipation Proclomation, and dashed the Confederacy's hopes for foreign recognition


Why was Burnside a foolish Choice

He chose to attack a heavily guarded Confederate Camp in Fredericksburg Virginia. Led to many to call for a peace


What could free blacks do now?

To abstain from violence except in self defense, and that free blacks would now be received into armed services of the United States


Even though slaves in the Union were not freed,

They claimed their freedom anyway


Many Democratic Newspapers in the North called the proclomation

Dictatorial, unconstitutional, and catastrophic


What racism did the blacks deal with?

Not allowed to be commission officers, paid less, were ineligible fir the enlistment bounty paid to white recruits


What was the 13th Amendment?

Removed any doubts about the legality of the emancipation


What did Dorothea Lynde Dix do?

Became the Union army's first superintendent of nurses


How did the Confederacy see God?

That they were guided by the almighty God, only true Christian nation. Saw war as religious crusade. Minsters advocates to war


What did Salmon P,Chase do with the coins?

Added In God we Trust


How did African Muricans see the war?

As their Exodus: god was freeing them from slavery


To meet the war expanding demand, Congress had to

Raise taxes (Morrill Tariff on imports and taxes on manufacturers and every possession and Internal Revenue Act), paper money (Legal Tender Act, 450 million dollars in currency value relied in public trust of the government) And sale of bonds


Why were confederate finances a disaster!

Had to create a revenue collecting bureaucracy from scratch


Confederacy enacted a tax of 0.5% on most forms of property, but the Confederacy

Farmed out its collection of taxes to the states. Chaos ensued. Tried to tax everything but evasion was easy


What led to absolutely outrageous prices on consumer goods?

The Union naval blockade


What did the Radical Republicans want?

Confiscation of southern plantations, immediate emancipation of slaves, and a more vigorous prosecution of the war


What did the Democrat want?

No civil legislation or new economic policies


War Democrats preferred

An end to fighting


Copperhead Democrats called

For an end to the war


David Farragut captured

Mobile Alabama


William Tecumseh Sherman captured

Atlanta, it turned the tide


Tensions were high in the Confederacy because

The poor white farmer expressed resentment of the planter elite


Davis's greatest challenge was from

Southern politicians who had embraced secession and then guarded states' rights against authority of the central government of the Confederacy


The states' right advocates challenged

The legality of the military draft, taxes on farm produce, and suspension of habeas corpus


The Confederacy suffered from an

Excess of dogma


Why was Chancellorsville significant?

Stonewall Jackson lost his arm when he was shot by his own men and made Hooker retreat


Why was Vicksburg significant?

Gained control of Mississippi and split Confederacy into two


Lee wanted to attack on Northern soil to

Persuade the North to end the war


What happened at Gettysburg

George Meade hastened reinforcements to hinew lines. They could not touch him. Pickett wanted to go to cemetery ridge but go murdered


If Maede pursued Lee, he

Might be able to end the war


What is the significance of the Gettysburg Address?

Lincoln predicted that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government by the people, for the people shall bot perish


What happened at the Battle of the Wilderness?

Men fought blindly in the woods, Union had more casualties, but Rebels running out of replacements. Union pulled back but then continue Southward to Spotsylvania Court House


What happened at Cold Harbor?

Frontal assault led to many causalities. Lee headed for Petersburg