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What are the factors that helped accelerate economic growth in the Civil War?

Nation's unparalleled resources, rapidly expanding population, inventors and business owners developed more efficient, labor saving techniques, and innovative bold leadership as many entrepreneurs took advantage of fertile business opportunities

1

Federal and state politicians actively encouraged

The growth of business by imposing high tariffs on foreign imports as a means of blunting competition and by providing land and cash to finance railroads and other transportation improvements

2

What Was the Homestead Act of 1862?

The distribution of 160 acre homesteads to citizens

3

Equally important to helping the economic boom was

That it did not regulate the activities of other corporations

4

Business leaders usually got what they wanted from

Congress and state legislators. Bribery was common

5

What was also booming in the late 1800s?

The agricultural sector

6

By often sending their products to factories, the agricultural sector

Stimulated the industrial sector

7

The industrial transformation also benefited from

An abundance of cheap power sources (water, wood, electricity, etc.)

8

What was the 2nd Industrial Revolution spurred by?

Creation of interconnected transportation and communication networks, widespread application of electrical power, and the systematic application of scientific research to the industrial process.

9

What connected the United Stares and Europe?

Steamships and the underwater telegraph line

10

What did electricity make grow?

Steel and chemical industry and urban growth

11

What symbolized the urban-industrial revolution?

Railroads

12

When did the railroads especially grow?

the 25 years after the Civil War

13

What was a major cause of the panic of 1893?

Railroads were expensive to manage

14

What were problems with railroads?

Often created shoddy working conditions, they were often poorly managed which led many companies to bankruptcy, and many executives often "lobbied" and had a dangerous degree of influence

15

Pacific Railway Act?

Authorized the construction of a rail line along a north central route by the Union Pacific Railroad westward from Omaha and Central Pacific Railroads eastward from Sacramento

16

Many railroad comoanies

Bribed legislators, manipulated accounts, used federal troops to suppress Indians

17

The Union Pacific Railroads workers were mostly

Past Civil War soldiers, former slaves, and Irish and German immigrants.

18

The Central Pacific Crew was mostly

Chinese

19

What delayed the finishing of the transcontinental railroad?

Iron prices spiked, broken treaties,prompted Indian raids, blizzards, and adverse conditions

20

The railroad met in

Promontory Utah

21

Alexander Graham Bell invented the

Telephone, founded the Bell Telephone Company, which was surpassed by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company

22

What did Thomas Edison invent?

Storage battery, Dictaphone, mimeograph, light bulb, phonograph, electric motor, electric transmission, and motion picture camera

23

The Edison Electric Illuminating Company

Began the great electric utility industry

24

The railroad and shipping connections made Cleveland a strategic location for

Servicing the booming oil fields of western Penn.

25

Where was the first oil well?

Titusville, Pennsylvania

26

How did Rockefeller weed out his competition to raise prices?

Bought out his Cleveland competitors, and those who resisted were forced our

27

What Is vertical integration?

Where a company produces whatever it needs. In addition, it also keeps large amounts of cash reserves to make it independent of banks

28

With Standard Oil owning much of the pipelines leading to the railroads, plus railroad rank cars and the oil storage facilities, it

Was able to dissuade the railroads from serving its eastern competitors

29

What was the Standard Oil Trust?

All 37 stockholders conveyed their stock to nine trustees, receiving trust certificates, which paid them annual dividends from the company's earnings

30

But this trust proved vulnerable to

Prosecution under state laws agains monopoly or restraint of trade

31

Rockefeller perfected the holding company:

A company that controlled other companies by holding a majority of their stock

32

Who was Carnegie a secretary for?

Thomas Scott, then district superintendent of the Penn. railroad and later its president

33

What did Henry Bessemer do?

He created the Bessemer converter, a process where steel could be produced directly and quickly from pig iron

34

Carnegie insisted on using

Uo to date machinery and equipment and used times of recession to expand cheaply by purchasing struggling companies

35

According to Carnegie, continual innovation in order to,reduce

Operating costs

36

Carnegie believed he was a

Public benefactor,

37

JP Morgan was born in

Wealth

38

The J. Pierpoint Morgan and Company channeled

European capital into the United States and grew into a financial in its own right

39

Morgan was an investment banker-

He would buy corporate bonds and stocks wholesale and sell them at a profit

40

Morgan sought out to consolidate rival firms into

Giant trusts

41

Morgan started out in the

Railroad business (controlling 1/6 of it) and later the steel industry. He bought out Carnegie's company and Rockefeller's iron ore holdings. Later founded the US Steel Corporation

42

The continuing demand for unskilled/ semiskilled workers attracted

New groups entering the workforce at the bottom: immigrants above all, along with women and children

43

The US was the only industrial nation in the world to have no

Workmen's compensation program to provide support for injured workers

44

Parents desperate for income had to put

Children at work

45

Throughout Appalachia boys worked at coal mines

Girls in NE worked in dusty textile mills, brushing away lint from the clacking machined and retying broken threads

46

Children suffered 3x times

As many accidents and respiratory diseases were common

47

Although there were some laws regarding child safety, they wrre

Rarely enforced and ignored

48

The only proof required by employers in such states was a

Statement from the child's parents

49

Why was organized protest difficult?

Differing cultures of the workers and civic leaders respected property rights more than the rights of labor

50

What was the main cause of the Great railroad Strike of 1877?

10% wage cut led many workers to walk off job and block tracks. This spread to hundreds of cities and towns

51

In San Fran, strikers often took wrath on

Chinese immigrants. Racist populism was common place in the Soutn

52

Federal troops finally

Quelled the widespread violence. Destroying property wore itself out

53

Eventually, the workers,

La kong organized bargaining power went back to work

54

The Great Railroad Strike demonstrated potential

Union strength and need for tighter organization

55

What Was the Sand Lot incident?

The depression hit hard in the west coast and many workers blamed it on the Chinese immigrants

56

Denis Kearney

Had organized the Workingmen's Party of California, to stop Chinese immigration. He caused a national issue

57

The National Labor Union comprised

Delegates from labor and reform groups more interested in political and social reform

58

What did the Nlu advocate?

Eight hour work day, workers' cooperatives, greenbackism, and equal rights for all

59

What caused the failure of NLU

Passing of their leader

60

The NLU was influential in

Persuading Congress to enact an 8 hour work day and to repeal 1864 Contract Labor act

61

The Knights of Labor endorsed

The reforms advanced by previous workingmen's groups, including the creation of bureaus of labor statistics and mechanics' lien laws, elimination of convict labor competition, 8 hour work day, and paper currency

62

The Knights allowed as members those

Who worked for wages except doctors, lawyers, bankers, and sellers of alcohol

63

Terrence Prowdley was

Frail, sensitive to criticism and indecisive at critical moment

64

However, Powerdly did

Increase the growth to strikes that occurred during his leadership

65

Anarchists believed that the government was

An abusive device used by the rich to exploit the working poor

66

Many European anarchists arrived to establish

Their belief in the impact of the propaganda of the dead

67

The Haymarket Affair grew indirectly out of

Prolonged agitation for an 8 hour work day

68

Violence started at the McCormick

Reaper Works plant, where farm equipment was made

69

What happened on May 4

There were long speeches complaining about low wages and long working day, when policemen showed up and told the group to disperse. Someone threw a bomb and chaos ensued. Because of this labor meetings were banned in Chicagom

70

Seven anarchist leaders were hanged despite any

Evidence against them

71

The violent incident at Haymarket Square triggered

Widespread revulsion at the nights of labor groups in general

72

What were factors for the KOL's decline?

A leadership more dedicated to reform than the nuts of boots of an organization, fear of radicalism, the failure of the KOL's co-op owned enterprises, and a preoccupation with politics that led the Knights to sponsor labor candidates in hundreds of local elections

73

Gompers focused on

Concrete economic gains

74

The Homestead Strike's caused was not helped when Alexander Berkman

Tried to assassinate Frick

75

The Pullman strike paralyzed

The economics of 27 sates snd territories taking up the western half of the nation